Monatshefte für Chemie - Chemical Monthly

, Volume 150, Issue 2, pp 327–337 | Cite as

γ-Fe2O3@SiO2-γ-aminobutyric acid as a novel superparamagnetic nanocatalyst promoted green synthesis of chromeno[4,3,2-de][1,6]naphthyridine derivatives

  • Hadi Mohammadi
  • Hamid Reza ShaterianEmail author
Original Paper


Grafting of γ-aminobutyric acid on the superparamagnetic γ-Fe2O3@SiO2 nanoparticles afforded γ-Fe2O3@SiO2-γ-aminobutyric acid as a novel heterogeneous nanocatalyst, which was characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, vibrating sample magnetometry, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and thermal analysis. In this research, we report a convenient and one-pot efficient direct protocol for the pseudo four-component preparation of chromeno[4,3,2-de][1,6]naphthyridine derivatives via cascade condensation reaction of malononitrile, 2,4-dihydroxyacetophenone with various aromatic aldehydes in the presence of the catalytic amount of the γ-Fe2O3@SiO2-γ-aminobutyric acid under green conditions in aqueous media. This procedure offers several advantages such as: very easy reaction conditions, simple work-up, or purification, excellent yields, high purity of the desired product, atom economy, and short reaction times. The superparamagnetic nanocatalyst is magnetically separable and kept stability after recycling for at least five consecutive runs without detectable activity loss.

Graphical abstract


γ-Fe2O3@SiO2-γ-aminobutyric acid Superparamagnetic nanocatalyst Chromeno[4,3,2-de][1,6]naphthyridines Multi-component reactions Water 



We gratefully appreciate the University of Sistan and Baluchestan Research Councils for the financial support of this work.

Supplementary material

706_2018_2317_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (2.4 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 2471 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of SciencesUniversity of Sistan and BaluchestanZahedanIran

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