Comparison of Several Calibration Procedures for Glass Electrodes in Proton Concentration
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Several reported procedures for calibrating glass electrodes in proton concentration are compared. Some recommendations for non-experts are also given. The examined procedures can be classified into two broad categories, namely: those based on direct potential difference measurements of solutions of known proton concentration and those that use one or several pH standards to calibrate the electrode and subsequently measure the pH of solutions containing known proton concentrations. With a single buffer, the two types of procedures lead to equivalent results. However, if two pH buffers are used, the slope of the calibration graph in proton concentration will differ from the real electrode slope to an extent proportional to the difference between the liquid junction potentials of the two buffers. Therefore, any other method is preferable under these circumstances.
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