Phylogenetic analysis of serotype A foot-and-mouth disease virus isolated in India between 1977 and 2000
The genetic diversity among the Indian serotype A Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) isolates sampled over a period of 24 years (1977–2000) was studied by sequencing the VP1 gene. In the phylogenetic tree, constructed from 83 Indian and 37 other available sequences, the FMDV type A isolates were distributed into 10 major genotypes (designated as I–X). The Indian isolates were distributed in 4 genotypes (I, IV, VI and VII), and co-circulation of at least 2 genotypes (VI and VII) in different states of the country in recent years is evident from the result. The study also revealed differential geographic distribution of genotypes, for example, some (genotypes I and VII) were recovered from large geographical areas, some time even across the continents, suggesting the spread of the viruses beyond continental barriers. Localization of genotypes restricting to a particular country (genotypes III and X) was also observed in the study. The genetic diversity in the field isolates has been discussed in relation to the amino acid substitutions at the known antigenic sites. This work provides valuable insights into the epidemiological situation of type A FMDV in India and necessary information in the selection of suitable vaccine strain(s), if required, for the National FMD control program.
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