Viral coinfection in salmonids: infectious pancreatic necrosis virus interferes with infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus
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Coinfection of farm-reared salmonids involving two viruses has been described, but there is no report on the interactions between viruses. Here we examine whether infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) strain Sp interferes with the growth of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) strain S46, a coinfected isolate from rainbow trout. When BF-2 cell culture was inoculated with S46 the infective titer of the IHNV fraction decreased by 3 log10 units compared to the growth curve of IHNV in the single infection. RT-PCR assay confirmed this reduction, which after successive passages of the co-infected sample led to a decrease in IHNV mRNA and the absence of the specific PCR product for IHNV. Flow cytometry showed that only 13% of the cells inoculated with S46 strain were infected with IHNV at 48–72 h post infection, in contrast to the 50–80% of cells that were positive for IPNV. Exposure of cells to IHNV for 24 h before infection with IPNV did not affect the infective titers of either virus or the PCR results obtained in simultaneous coinfections. Moreover IHNV was not inhibited when the IPNV inoculum was reduced. So, a multiplicity of infection dependence was demonstrated for IPNV-IHNV interference; the RT-PCR assay described here was found to be a suitable technique for identifying and studying dual viral infections
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