Improvement of a serodiagnostic strategy for foot-and-mouth disease virus surveillance in cattle under systematic vaccination: a combined system of an indirect ELISA-3ABC with an enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot assay
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Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) recombinant non-capsideal viral antigens 3A, 3B, 2C, 3D and 3ABC were assessed individually in an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA) for their ability to screen for persistent infection-specific antibodies in cattle, regardless of vaccination condition. Results of sequential serum samples from non-vaccinated animals with experimentally induced persistent infection, and their correlation with virus isolation, indicated that the polypeptides 3A, 3B and 3ABC showed the most adequate characteristics for further field studies.
Reliable performance of the I-ELISA with the selected antigen 3ABC was indicated by the distinct patterns observed for the frequency distribution values of naive and true positive samples. For regularly vaccinated livestock, a clear negative profile was proved in samples from regions without recent history of FMD. In contrast, at 90 and 900 days post-outbreak, coexistence of a positive and a negative population was established. These findings indicated that, irrespective of vaccination, the test allowed a classification of the herd-disease status.
A high degree of agreement was observed between I-ELISA-3ABC and EITB results for clearly reactive and non-reactive sera. For samples with reactivity values close to that of the cut-off, the EITB profiles upheld the definition of the infection condition. On this basis, screening by I-ELISA-3ABC, together with confirmation of suspect or positive samples by EITB is proposed as an adequate and accurate approach for large-scale epidemiological surveillance.
KeywordsPositive Sample Persistent Infection Vaccination Condition Epidemiological Surveillance Accurate Approach
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