Different types of adjuvants in prophylactic and therapeutic human papillomavirus vaccines in laboratory animals: a systematic review

  • Tahoora Mousavi
  • Sogol Sattari Saravi
  • Reza Valadan
  • Mohammad Reza Haghshenas
  • Alireza RafieiEmail author
  • Hamed Jafarpour
  • Amir Shamshirian


Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes cervical carcinoma, which and is the third most common cancer, accounting for 275,000 deaths annually worldwide. Adjuvants have a key role in promotion of vaccine efficacy; therefore, using prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines combined with adjuvant could be of great benefit in prevention and treatment of cervical cancer. There are different types of adjuvants, including MF59TM adjuvants, RNA-based, JY (interleukin2/chitosan), cholera toxin (CT), heat-labile enterotoxin (LT), Freund’s adjuvant, alum, SA-4-1BBL, λ-carrageenan (λ-CGN), heat shock proteins (HSPs), juzen-taiho-to (JTT) and hochu-ekki-to (HET), ISCOM and ISCOMATRIX™, very small size proteoliposomes (VSSPs), granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Adjuvants have various functions, especially in therapeutic vaccines, and they lead to an increase in cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), so they are important in the design of vaccines. Here, we review the currently used adjuvants and their combinations with HPV protein vaccines in order to introduce an appropriate adjuvant for HPV vaccines.


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

There is no conflict of interest to declare.

Supplementary material

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Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 40 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Molecular and Cell Biology, Student Research Committee, Molecular and Cell Biology Research Center, Faculty of MedicineMazandaran University of Medical SciencesSariIran
  2. 2.Department of Biology, Faculty of Basic ScienceShahed UniversityTehranIran
  3. 3.Molecular and Cell Biology Research Center (MCBRC), Faculty of MedicineMazandaran University of Medical SciencesSariIran
  4. 4.Department of Immunology, Faculty of MedicineMazandaran University of Medical SciencesSariIran
  5. 5.Department of Microbiology, Molecular and Cell Biology Research Center, Faculty of MedicineMazandaran University of Medical SciencesSariIran
  6. 6.Student Research Committee, Faculty of MedicineMazandaran University of Medical SciencesSariIran
  7. 7.Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Student Research Committee, School of Allied Medical SciencesMazandaran University of Medical SciencesSariIran
  8. 8.Gastrointestinal Cancer Research CenterMazandaran University of Medical SciencesSariIran

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