Proteomic and phosphoproteomic analyses reveal several events involved in the early stages of bovine herpesvirus 1 infection
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Herpesviruses are predicted to express more than 80 proteins during their infection cycle. The proteins synthesized by the immediate early genes and early genes target signaling pathways in host cells that are essential for the successful initiation of a productive infection and for latency. In this study, proteomic and phosphoproteomic tools showed the occurrence of changes in Madin-Darby bovine kidney cells at the early stage of the infection by bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1). Proteins that had already been described in the early stage of infection for other herpesviruses but not for BoHV-1 were found. For example, stathmin phosphorylation at the initial stage of infection is described for the first time. In addition, two proteins that had not been described yet in the early stages of herpesvirus infections in general were ribonuclease/angiogenin inhibitor and Rab GDP dissociation inhibitor beta. The biological processes involved in these cellular responses were repair and replication of DNA, splicing, microtubule dynamics, and inflammatory responses. These results reveal pathways that might be used as targets for designing antiviral molecules against BoHV-1 infection.
BoHV-1 infection at early stages influenced various biological processes.
BoHV-1 infection at early stages showed proteins reported for other virus and stages.
Proteins not yet reported for BoHV-1 infection in the early stage were ribonuclease/angiogenin inhibitor and Rab GDP dissociation inhibitor beta
two-dimensional gel electrophoresis
bovine herpesvirus 1
bovine respiratory disease complex
heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein C
cyprinid herpesvirus 2
Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 2
78 kDa glucose-regulated protein
human herpesvirus 1
heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K
heat shock protein beta-1
heat shock protein 70
HHV-1 entry mediator
immobilized pH gradient
Madin-Darby bovine kidney
minimum essential medium
multiplicity of infection
osteoclast stimulating factor
proliferating cell nuclear antigen
purine nucleoside phosphorylase
prostaglandin E synthase 3
real-time quantitative PCR
ribonuclease/angiogenin inhibitor 1
ribosomal protein large P0
ribosomal protein S18
virion host shut-off
The authors thank the Brazilian Agencies Foundation for Research Support of Minas Gerais (FAPEMIG: Fellowships and Grants, PPM-00796-15), the Financier of Studies and Projects (FINEP: CT-INFRA/UFV-2004/2007/2008), the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq: Grants: 483976/2012-1 and 455318/2014-0), and Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES: Fellowships) for financial support. The authors would like to thank Nucleus of Analysis of Biomolecules (NuBioMol, UFV, Viçosa-MG, Brazil) for assistance with mass spectrometric analysis, and the Institute of Biotechnology Applied to Agriculture (BIOAGRO, UFV, Viçosa-MG, Brazil) for technical support. Funding Sources in Brazil: Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais (FAPEMIG) http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100004901. Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100003593. Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos (FINEP) http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100004809. Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100002322.
MJMJ, LKJP, CEV, and KMF cultured and infected cells, performed electrophoresis assays and protein analysis. MJMJ, PSC and MRS performed real-time PCR. MCBP, ASJ, GCB, JLRF, PSC, MRS, and MRA designed and conducted the biological assays. MJMJ, MCBP, ASJ, PSC, and MRS wrote and revised the manuscript. All authors contributed and gave approval to the final version of the manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors have nothing to disclose as conflicts of interest. The authors declare no competing financial interest.
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