First report of fowl aviadenovirus serotypes FAdV-8b and FAdV-11 associated with inclusion body hepatitis in commercial broiler and broiler-breeder flocks in Turkey
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Inclusion body hepatitis (IBH), hydropericardium syndrome (HS), and gizzard erosion (GE) are all economically important diseases in the poultry industry worldwide and are all caused by fowl aviadenovirus (FAdV). It is important to identify the serotype of the virus to differentiate these diseases. In the present study, a total of six recent FAdV serotypes were isolated and identified in broiler and broiler-breeder flocks in Izmir, Manisa, and Aydın provinces of the Aegean region of Turkey between January and March 2019. The viruses were isolated from livers and pooled organs of chickens using primary chicken embryo kidney cell cultures (CEKC). Virus isolates were identified by PCR amplification of the loop 1 (L1) variable region of the hexon gene followed by Sanger sequencing. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of both FAdV-D (serotype 11) and FAdV-E (serotype 8b). The viruses that were isolated were associated with IBH, which is typically characterized by gross lesions such as enlarged and pale yellow liver with multiple petechial hemorrhages. Histopathological examination also showed necrotizing hepatitis with intranuclear inclusion bodies in hepatocytes. This study is the first report of the isolation and identification of FAdV serotypes associated with IBH in commercial broilers and broiler-breeder flocks in Turkey. The results of sequence analysis showed that FAdV-8b and FAdV-11 were the circulating serotypes that caused recent field outbreaks of IBH in the Aegean region between January and March, 2019.
The authors thank Dr. Ozhan Turkyilmaz, Dr. Gulnur Kalayci, Mr. Hasan Huseyin Pala and Mr. Bahtiyar Yılmaz for their contribution and help. The authors also especially thank Dr. Gerald Barry (University College of Dublin, Ireland) for English language editing and scientific advice. This study was supported by the Izmir/Bornova Veterinary Control Institute.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
In this study, the samples were collected after the death of chickens because of virus infections in broiler and broiler-breeder flocks. No chickens were killed for the purpose of the sampling in the present study.
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