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Archives of Virology

, Volume 164, Issue 7, pp 1967–1980 | Cite as

Taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales: update 2019

  • Gaya K. Amarasinghe
  • María A. Ayllón
  • Yīmíng Bào
  • Christopher F. Basler
  • Sina Bavari
  • Kim R. Blasdell
  • Thomas Briese
  • Paul A. Brown
  • Alexander Bukreyev
  • Anne Balkema-Buschmann
  • Ursula J. Buchholz
  • Camila Chabi-Jesus
  • Kartik Chandran
  • Chiara Chiapponi
  • Ian Crozier
  • Rik L. de Swart
  • Ralf G. Dietzgen
  • Olga Dolnik
  • Jan F. Drexler
  • Ralf Dürrwald
  • William G. Dundon
  • W. Paul Duprex
  • John M. Dye
  • Andrew J. Easton
  • Anthony R. Fooks
  • Pierre B. H. Formenty
  • Ron A. M. Fouchier
  • Juliana Freitas-Astúa
  • Anthony Griffiths
  • Roger Hewson
  • Masayuki Horie
  • Timothy H. Hyndman
  • Dàohóng Jiāng
  • Elliott W. Kitajima
  • Gary P. Kobinger
  • Hideki Kondō
  • Gael Kurath
  • Ivan V. Kuzmin
  • Robert A. Lamb
  • Antonio Lavazza
  • Benhur Lee
  • Davide Lelli
  • Eric M. Leroy
  • Jiànróng Lǐ
  • Piet Maes
  • Shin-Yi L. Marzano
  • Ana Moreno
  • Elke Mühlberger
  • Sergey V. Netesov
  • Norbert Nowotny
  • Are Nylund
  • Arnfinn L. Økland
  • Gustavo Palacios
  • Bernadett Pályi
  • Janusz T. Pawęska
  • Susan L. Payne
  • Alice Prosperi
  • Pedro Luis Ramos-González
  • Bertus K. Rima
  • Paul Rota
  • Dennis Rubbenstroth
  • Mǎng Shī
  • Peter Simmonds
  • Sophie J. Smither
  • Enrica Sozzi
  • Kirsten Spann
  • Mark D. Stenglein
  • David M. Stone
  • Ayato Takada
  • Robert B. Tesh
  • Keizō Tomonaga
  • Noël Tordo
  • Jonathan S. Towner
  • Bernadette van den Hoogen
  • Nikos Vasilakis
  • Victoria Wahl
  • Peter J. Walker
  • Lin-Fa Wang
  • Anna E. Whitfield
  • John V. Williams
  • F. Murilo Zerbini
  • Tāo Zhāng
  • Yong-Zhen Zhang
  • Jens H. KuhnEmail author
Virology Division News

Abstract

In February 2019, following the annual taxon ratification vote, the order Mononegavirales was amended by the addition of four new subfamilies and 12 new genera and the creation of 28 novel species. This article presents the updated taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales as now accepted by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV).

Introduction

The virus order Mononegavirales was established in 1991 to accommodate related viruses with nonsegmented, linear, single-stranded, negative-sense RNA genomes classified into three families [20]. According to the previous ratification vote held in October 2018, the order included eight families [10]. Amended/emended order descriptions were published in 1995 [5], 1997 [21], 2000 [22], 2005 [23], 2011 [8], 2016 [1], 2017 [3], March 2018 [4], and October 2018 [15]. Here we present the changes proposed via official ICTV taxonomic proposals that were accepted by the ICTV Executive Committee (EC) in February 2019. Therefore, these changes are now part of the official ICTV taxonomy.

Taxonomic changes at the order rank

No changes were made at the order rank.

Taxonomic changes at the family rank

Artoviridae

No changes were made at the family rank.

Bornaviridae

One new genus, Cultervirus, including one new species, Sharpbelly cultervirus, was added to the family Bornaviridae for classification of Wǔhàn sharpbelly bornavirus (WhSBV) discovered in a sharpbelly (Hemiculter leucisculus) [29] (TaxoProp 2018.016M.A.v1.Cultervirus.docx).

Filoviridae

The family Filoviridae was expanded by the addition of two new genera. The genus Striavirus was created to include species Xilang striavirus for Xīlǎng virus (XILV; previously “Wēnlǐng frogfish filovirus”) discovered in striated frogfish (Antennarius striatus). The genus Thamnovirus was created to include species Huangjiao thamnovirus for Huángjiāo virus (HUJV; previously “Wēnlǐng thamnaconus septentrionalis filovirus”) discovered in a filefish (Thamnaconus septentrionalis) [29] (TaxoProp 2018.015M.A.v1.Filoviridae_2gen).

Lispiviridae

No changes were made at the family rank.

Mymonaviridae

No changes were made at the family rank.

Nyamiviridae

No changes were made at the family rank.

Paramyxoviridae

After a thorough assessment [27], the family Paramyxoviridae was comprehensively reorganized (TaxoProp 2018.011M.A.v1.Paramyxoviridae):
  • the subfamily Avulavirinae was created for three genera (two new [Metaavulavirus, Paraavulavirus], one renamed [AvulavirusOrthoavulavirus]) to accommodate previously classified viruses. All included species names were renamed;

  • the subfamily Metaparamyxovirinae was created for one new genus (Synodonvirus) including one new species (Synodus paramyxovirus) for Wēnlǐng triplecross lizardfish paramyxovirus (WTLPV) discovered in triplecross lizardfish (Synodus macrops) [29];

  • the subfamily Orthoparamyxovirinae was created for five existing genera (Aquaparamyxovirus, Ferlavirus, Henipavirus, Morbillivirus, Respirovirus) and three new genera (Jeilongvirus, Narmovirus, Salemvirus). Genus Respirovirus was expanded by one species, Caprine respirovirus 3, for caprine parainfluenzavirus 3 (CPIV-3) discovered in goats [13, 33]. Genus Jeilongvirus includes six novel species: Beilong jeilongvirus for Beilong virus (BeiV) discovered in human kidney mesangial cells [14]; Jun jeilongvirus for J virus (JV) isolated from house mice (Mus musculus) [9, 16]; Lophuromys jeilongvirus 1 and 2 for Mount Mabu Lophuromys virus 1 and 2 (MMLV-1/2) identified in Rungwe brush-furred rats (Lophuromys machangui); Myodes jeilongvirus for Pohorje Myodes paramyxovirus 1 (PMPV-1) identified in bank voles (Myodes glareolus) [31]; and Tailam jeilongvirus for Tailam virus (TaiV) isolated from Indochinese forest rats (Rattus andamanensis) [32]. Genus Narmovirus includes four new species: Mossman narmovirus for Mossman virus (MossV) isolated from Rattus rats [6, 17]; Myodes narmovirus for bank vole virus 1 (BaV-1) detected in bank voles (Myodes glareolus) [2]; Nariva narmovirus for Nariva virus (NarV) discovered in short-tailed zygodonts (Zygodontomys brevicauda) [11, 30]; and Tupaia narmovirus for Tupaia paramyxovirus (TupV) isolated from northern treeshrews (Tupaia belangeri). Genus Salemvirus includes the species Salem salemvirus for Salem virus (SalV) isolated from horses [26].

  • the subfamily Rubulavirinae was created for two genera (one new [Pararubulavirus], one renamed [RubulavirusOrthorubulavirus]) to accommodate previously classified rubulaviruses. All included species names were renamed; and

  • three unassigned species were created in the family: Cynoglossus paramyxovirus for Wēnlǐng tonguesole paramyxovirus (WTSPV) discovered in a tonguesole (Cynoglossus sp.); Hoplichthys paramyxovirus for Wēnlǐng hoplichthys paramyxovirus (WHPV) identified in a flathead (Hoplichthys sp.); and Scoliodon paramyxovirus for Wēnzhōu pacific spadenose shark paramyxovirus (WPSSPV) discovered in a Pacific spadenose shark (Scoliodon macrorhynchos) [29].

Pneumoviridae

No changes were made at the family rank.

Rhabdoviridae

The family Rhabdoviridae was expanded by the addition of two new genera. Genus Alphanemrhavirus was created to include two new species, Xingshan alphanemrhavirus and Xinzhou alphanemrhavirus, for Xingshan nematode virus 4 (XsNV-4) and Xinzhou nematode virus 4 (XzNV-4), respectively [28] (TaxoProp 2018.001M.A.v1.Alphanemrhavirus). Genus Caligrhavirus was created to include three new species, Caligus caligrhavirus, Lepeophtheirus caligrhavirus, and Salmonlouse caligrhavirus for Caligus rogercresseyi rhabdovirus (CRoRV) detected in a copepod (Caligus rogercresseyi) [19], Lepeophtheirus salmonis rhabdovirus 127 (LSalRV-127), and Lepeophtheirus salmonis rhabdovirus 9 (LSalRV-9), both identified in salmon lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) [18], respectively (2018.002M.A.v1.Caligrhavirus).

The genus Dichorhavirus was expanded by three species: Citrus chlorotic spot dichorhavirus, Citrus leprosis N dichorhavirus, and Clerodendrum chlorotic spot dichorhavirus for citrus chlorotic spot virus (CiCSV) discovered in sweet orange trees [7], citrus leprosis virus N (CiLV-N) also found in sweet orange trees [24], and Clerodendrum chlorotic spot virus (ClCSV) discovered in an ornamental plant (Clerodendrum sp.) [25], respectively (2018.003M.A.v1.Dichorhavirus_3sp).

One new species, Vaprio ledantevirus, was added to genus Ledantevirus, for Vaprio virus (VAPV) of Kuhl’s pipistrelles (Pipistrellus kuhlii) [12] (2018.004M.A.v1.Ledantevirus_sp).

Sunviridae

No changes were made at the family rank.

Xinmoviridae

No changes were made at the family rank.

Summary

A summary of the current, ICTV-accepted taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales is presented in Table 1.
Table 1

ICTV-accepted taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales as of February 2019. Listed are all mononegaviruses that are classified into species

Family/subfamily/genus

Species

Virus (Abbreviation)

Family Artoviridae

Peropuvirus

Barnacle peropuvirus

Běihǎi barnacle virus 8 (BhBV-8)

 

Beihai peropuvirus

Běihǎi rhabdo-like virus 1 (BhRLV-1)

 

Hubei peropuvirus

Húběi rhabdo-like virus 6 (HbRLV-6)

 

Odonate peropuvirus

Húběi rhabdo-like virus 8 (HbRLV-8)

 

Pillworm peropuvirus

Húběi rhabdo-like virus 5 (HbRLV-5)

 

Pteromalus puparum peropuvirus*

Pteromalus puparum negative-strand RNA virus 1 (PpNSRV-1)

 

Woodlouse peropuvirus

Běihǎi rhabdo-like virus 2 (BhRLV-2)

Family Bornaviridae

Carbovirus

Queensland carbovirus*

jungle carpet python virus (JCPV)

 

Southwest carbovirus

southwest carpet python virus (SWCPV)

Cultervirus

Sharpbelly cultervirus*

Wǔhàn sharpbelly bornavirus (WhSBV)

Orthobornavirus

Elapid 1 orthobornavirus

Loveridge’s garter snake virus 1 (LGSV-1)

 

Mammalian 1 orthobornavirus*

Borna disease virus 1 (BoDV-1)

  

Borna disease virus 2 (BoDV-2)

 

Mammalian 2 orthobornavirus

variegated squirrel bornavirus 1 (VSBV-1)

 

Passeriform 1 orthobornavirus

canary bornavirus 1 (CnBV-1)

  

canary bornavirus 2 (CnBV-2)

  

canary bornavirus 3 (CnBV-3)

 

Passeriform 2 orthobornavirus

estrildid finch bornavirus 1 (EsBV-1)

 

Psittaciform 1 orthobornavirus

parrot bornavirus 1 (PaBV-1)

  

parrot bornavirus 2 (PaBV-2)

  

parrot bornavirus 3 (PaBV-3)

  

parrot bornavirus 4 (PaBV-4)

  

parrot bornavirus 7 (PaBV-7)

 

Psittaciform 2 orthobornavirus

parrot bornavirus 5 (PaBV-5)

 

Waterbird 1 orthobornavirus

aquatic bird bornavirus 1 (ABBV-1)

  

aquatic bird bornavirus 2 (ABBV-2)

Family Filoviridae

Cuevavirus

Lloviu cuevavirus*

Lloviu virus (LLOV)

Ebolavirus

Bundibugyo ebolavirus

Bundibugyo virus (BDBV)

 

Reston ebolavirus

Reston virus (RESTV)

 

Sudan ebolavirus

Sudan virus (SUDV)

 

Tai Forest ebolavirus

Taï Forest virus (TAFV)

 

Zaire ebolavirus*

Ebola virus (EBOV)

Marburgvirus

Marburg marburgvirus*

Marburg virus (MARV)

  

Ravn virus (RAVV)

Striavirus

Xilang striavirus*

Xīlǎng virus (XILV)

Thamnovirus

Huangjiao thamnovirus*

Huángjiāo virus (HUJV)

Family Lispiviridae

Arlivirus

Gerrid arlivirus

Sānxiá water strider virus 4 (SxWSV-4)

 

Hubei arlivirus

Húběi rhabdo-like virus 3 (HbRLV-3)

 

Lishi arlivirus*

Líshí spider virus 2 (LsSV-2)

 

Odonate arlivirus

Húběi odonate virus 10 (HbOV-10)

 

Tacheng arlivirus

Tǎchéng tick virus 6 (TcTV-6)

 

Wuchang arlivirus

Wǔchāng romanomermis nematode virus 2 (WcRNV-2)

Family Mymonaviridae

Sclerotimonavirus

Dadou sclerotimonavirus

soybean leaf-associated negative-stranded RNA virus 3 (SLaNSRV-3)

 

Drop sclerotimonavirus

Sclerotinia sclerotiorum negative-stranded RNA virus 2 (SsNSRV-2)

  

Sclerotinia sclerotiorum negative-stranded RNA virus 4 (SsNSRV-4)

 

Glycine sclerotimonavirus

Fusarium graminearum negative-stranded RNA virus 1 (FgNSRV-1)

  

soybean leaf-associated negative-stranded RNA virus 1 (SLaNSRV-1)

 

Hubei sclerotimonavirus

Húběi rhabdo-like virus 4 (HbRLV-4)

 

Illinois sclerotimonavirus

soybean leaf-associated negative-stranded RNA virus 2 (SLaNSRV-2)

 

Phyllosphere sclerotimonavirus

soybean leaf-associated negative-stranded RNA virus 4 (SLaNSRV-4)

 

Sclerotinia sclerotimonavirus*

Sclerotinia sclerotiorum negative-stranded RNA virus 1 (SsNSRV-1)

  

Sclerotinia sclerotiorum negative-stranded RNA virus 3 (SsNSRV-3)

Family Nyamiviridae

Berhavirus

Beihai berhavirus

Běihǎi rhabdo-like virus 4 (BhRLV-4)

 

Echinoderm berhavirus

Běihǎi rhabdo-like virus 5 (BhRLV-5)

 

Sipunculid berhavirus*

Běihǎi rhabdo-like virus 3 (BhRLV-3)

Crustavirus

Beihai crustavirus

Běihǎi rhabdo-like virus 6 (BhRLV-6)

 

Wenling crustavirus

Wēnlǐng crustacean virus 12 (WlCV-12)

 

Wenzhou crustavirus*

Wēnzhōu crab virus 1 (WzCV-1)

Nyavirus

Midway nyavirus

Midway virus (MIDWV)

 

Nyamanini nyavirus*

Nyamanini virus (NYMV)

 

Sierra Nevada nyavirus

Sierra Nevada virus (SNVV)

Orinovirus

Orinoco orinovirus*

Orinoco virus (ONCV)

Socyvirus

Soybean cyst nematode socyvirus*

soybean cyst nematode virus 1 (SbCNV-1)

Tapwovirus

Tapeworm tapwovirus*

Wēnzhōu tapeworm virus 1 (WzTWV-1)

Family Paramyxoviridae

Subfamily Avulavirinae

Metaavulavirus

Avian metaavulavirus 2*

avian paramyxovirus 2 (APMV-2)

 

Avian metaavulavirus 5

avian paramyxovirus 5 (APMV-5)

 

Avian metaavulavirus 6

avian paramyxovirus 6 (APMV-6)

 

Avian metaavulavirus 7

avian paramyxovirus 7 (APMV-7)

 

Avian metaavulavirus 8

avian paramyxovirus 8 (APMV-8)

 

Avian metaavulavirus 10

avian paramyxovirus 10 (APMV-10)

 

Avian metaavulavirus 11

avian paramyxovirus 11 (APMV-11)

 

Avian metaavulavirus 14

avian paramyxovirus 14 (APMV-14)

 

Avian metaavulavirus 15

avian paramyxovirus 15 (APMV-15)

 

Avian metaavulavirus 20

avian paramyxovirus 20 (APMV-20)

Orthoavulavirus

Avian orthoavulavirus 1*

avian paramyxovirus 1 (APMV-1)1

 

Avian orthoavulavirus 9

avian paramyxovirus 9 (APMV-9)

 

Avian orthoavulavirus 12

avian paramyxovirus 12 (APMV-12)

 

Avian orthoavulavirus 13

avian paramyxovirus 13 (APMV-13)

 

Avian orthoavulavirus 16

avian paramyxovirus 16 (APMV-16)

 

Avian orthoavulavirus 17

Antarctic penguin virus A (APV-A)

 

Avian orthoavulavirus 18

Antarctic penguin virus B (APV-B)

 

Avian orthoavulavirus 19

Antarctic penguin virus C (APV-C)

Paraavulavirus

Avian paraavulavirus 3*

avian paramyxovirus 3 (APMV-3)

 

Avian paraavulavirus 4

avian paramyxovirus 4 (APMV-4)

Subfamily Metaparamyxovirinae

Synodonvirus

Synodus paramyxovirus*2

Wēnlǐng triplecross lizardfish paramyxovirus (WTLPV)

Subfamily Orthoparamyxovirinae

Aquaparamyxovirus

Salmon aquaparamyxovirus*

Atlantic salmon paramyxovirus (AsaPV)

Ferlavirus

Reptilian ferlavirus*

fer-de-lance virus (FDLV)

Henipavirus

Cedar henipavirus

Cedar virus (CedV)

 

Ghanaian bat henipavirus

Ghana virus (GhV)

 

Hendra henipavirus*

Hendra virus (HeV)

 

Mojiang henipavirus

Mòjiāng virus (MojV)

 

Nipah henipavirus

Nipah virus (NiV)

Jeilongvirus

Beilong jeilongvirus*

Beilong virus (BeiV)

 

Jun jeilongvirus

J virus (JV)

 

Lophuromys jeilongvirus 1

Mount Mabu Lophuromys virus 1 (MMLV-1)

 

Lophuromys jeilongvirus 2

Mount Mabu Lophuromys virus 2 (MMLV-2)

 

Myodes jeilongvirus

Pohorje Myodes paramyxovirus 1 (PMPV-1)

 

Tailam jeilongvirus

Tailam virus (TaiV)

Morbillivirus

Canine morbillivirus

canine distemper virus (CDV)

 

Cetacean morbillivirus

cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV)

 

Feline morbillivirus

feline morbillivirus (FeMV)

 

Measles morbillivirus*

measles virus (MeV)

 

Phocine morbillivirus

phocine distemper virus (PDV)

 

Rinderpest morbillivirus

rinderpest virus (RPV)

 

Small ruminant morbillivirus

peste-des-petits-ruminants virus (PPRV)

Narmovirus

Mossman narmovirus

Mossman virus (MossV)

 

Myodes narmovirus

bank vole virus 1 (BaV-1)

 

Nariva narmovirus*

Nariva virus (NarV)

 

Tupaia narmovirus

Tupaia paramyxovirus (TupV)

Respirovirus

Bovine respirovirus 3

bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3)

 

Caprine respirovirus 3

caprine parainfluenzavirus 3 (CPIV-3)

 

Human respirovirus 1

human parainfluenza virus 1 (HPIV-1)

 

Human respirovirus 3

human parainfluenza virus 3 (HPIV-3)

 

Murine respirovirus*

Sendai virus (SeV)

 

Porcine respirovirus 1

porcine parainfluenza virus 1 (PPIV-1)

Salemvirus

Salem salemvirus*

Salem virus (SalV)

Subfamily Rubulavirinae

Orthorubulavirus

Bat mumps orthorubulavirus 3

bat mumps virus (BMV)

 

Human orthorubulavirus 2

human parainfluenza virus 2 (HPIV-2)

 

Human orthorubulavirus 4

human parainfluenza virus 4a (HPIV-4a)

  

human parainfluenza virus 4b (HPIV-4b)

 

Mammalian orthorubulavirus 5

parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV-5)

 

Mapuera orthorubulavirus

Mapuera virus (MapV)

 

Mumps orthorubulavirus*

mumps virus (MuV)

 

Porcine orthorubulavirus

La Piedad Michoacán Mexico virus (LPMV)

 

Simian orthorubulavirus

simian virus 41 (SV-41)

Pararubulavirus

Achimota pararubulavirus 1

Achimota virus 1 (AchPV-1)

 

Achimota pararubulavirus 2

Achimota virus 2 (AchPV-2)

 

Menangle pararubulavirus*

Menangle virus (MenPV)

 

Sosuga pararubulavirus

Sosuga virus (SOSV)

 

Teviot pararubulavirus

Teviot virus (TevPV)

 

Tioman pararubulavirus

Tioman virus (TioPV)

 

Tuhoko pararubulavirus 1

Tuhoko virus 1 (ThkPV-1)

 

Tuhoko pararubulavirus 2

Tuhoko virus 2 (ThkPV-2)

 

Tuhoko pararubulavirus 3

Tuhoko virus 3 (ThkPV-3)

Unassigned

Unassigned

Cynoglossus paramyxovirus

Wēnlǐng tonguesole paramyxovirus (WTSPV)

Unassigned

Hoplichthys paramyxovirus

Wēnlǐng hoplichthys paramyxovirus (WHPV)

Unassigned

Scoliodon paramyxovirus

Wēnzhōu pacific spadenose shark paramyxovirus (WPSSPV)

Family Pneumoviridae

Metapneumovirus

Avian metapneumovirus*

avian metapneumovirus (AMPV)

 

Human metapneumovirus

human metapneumovirus (HMPV)

Orthopneumovirus

Bovine orthopneumovirus

bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV)

 

Human orthopneumovirus*

human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV)

 

Murine orthopneumovirus

murine pneumonia virus (MPV)

Family Rhabdoviridae

Almendravirus

Arboretum almendravirus

Arboretum virus (ABTV)

 

Balsa almendravirus

Balsa virus (BALV)

 

Coot Bay almendravirus

Coot Bay virus (CBV)

 

Puerto Almendras almendravirus*

Puerto Almendras virus (PTAMV)

 

Rio Chico almendravirus

Rio Chico virus (RCHV)

Alphanemrhavirus

Xingshan alphanemrhavirus*

Xingshan nematode virus 4 (XsNV-4)

 

Xinzhou alphanemrhavirus

Xinzhou nematode virus 4 (XzNV-4)

Caligrhavirus

Caligus caligrhavirus

Caligus rogercresseyi rhabdovirus (CRogRV)

 

Lepeophtheirus caligrhavirus*

Lepeophtheirus salmonis rhabdovirus 127 (LSalRV-127)

 

Salmonlouse caligrhavirus

Lepeophtheirus salmonis rhabdovirus 9 (LSalRV-9)

Curiovirus

Curionopolis curiovirus*

Curionopolis virus (CURV)

 

Iriri curiovirus

Iriri virus (IRIRV)

 

Itacaiunas curiovirus

Itacaiunas virus (ITAV)

 

Rochambeau curiovirus

Rochambeau virus (RBUV)

Cytorhabdovirus

Alfalfa dwarf cytorhabdovirus

alfalfa dwarf virus (ADV)

 

Barley yellow striate mosaic cytorhabdovirus

barley yellow striate mosaic virus (BYSMV)

 

Broccoli necrotic yellows cytorhabdovirus

broccoli necrotic yellows virus (BNYV)

 

Colocasia bobone disease-associated cytorhabdovirus

Colocasia bobone disease-associated virus (CBDaV)

 

Festuca leaf streak cytorhabdovirus

Festuca leaf streak virus (FLSV)

 

Lettuce necrotic yellows cytorhabdovirus*

lettuce necrotic yellows virus (LNYV)

 

Lettuce yellow mottle cytorhabdovirus

lettuce yellow mottle virus (LYMoV)

 

Northern cereal mosaic cytorhabdovirus

northern cereal mosaic virus (NCMV)

 

Sonchus cytorhabdovirus 1

Sonchus virus (SonV)

 

Strawberry crinkle cytorhabdovirus

strawberry crinkle virus (SCV)

 

Wheat American striate mosaic cytorhabdovirus

wheat American striate mosaic virus (WASMV)

Dichorhavirus

Citrus chlorotic spot dichorhavirus

citrus chlorotic spot virus (CiCSV)

 

Citrus leprosis N dichorhavirus

citrus leprosis virus N (CiLV-N)

 

Clerodendrum chlorotic spot dichorhavirus

clerodendrum chlorotic spot virus (ClCSV)

 

Coffee ringspot dichorhavirus

coffee ringspot virus (CoRSV)

 

Orchid fleck dichorhavirus*

orchid fleck virus (OFV)

Ephemerovirus

Adelaide River ephemerovirus

Adelaide River virus (ARV)

 

Berrimah ephemerovirus

Berrimah virus (BRMV)

 

Bovine fever ephemerovirus*

bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV)

 

Kimberley ephemerovirus

Kimberley virus (KIMV)

  

Malakal virus (MALV)

 

Koolpinyah ephemerovirus

Koolpinyah virus (KOOLV)

 

Kotonkan ephemerovirus

kotonkan virus (KOTV)

 

Obodhiang ephemerovirus

Obodhiang virus (OBOV)

 

Yata ephemerovirus

Yata virus (YATV)

Hapavirus

Flanders hapavirus*

Flanders virus (FLAV)

 

Gray Lodge hapavirus

Gray Lodge virus (GLOV)

 

Hart Park hapavirus

Hart Park virus (HPV)

 

Joinjakaka hapavirus

Joinjakaka virus (JOIV)

 

Kamese hapavirus

Kamese virus (KAMV)

 

La Joya hapavirus

La Joya virus (LJV)

 

Landjia hapavirus

Landjia virus (LANV = LJAV)

 

Manitoba hapavirus

Manitoba virus (MANV = MNTBV)

 

Marco hapavirus

Marco virus (MCOV)

 

Mosqueiro hapavirus

Mosqueiro virus (MQOV)

 

Mossuril hapavirus

Mossuril virus (MOSV)

 

Ngaingan hapavirus

Ngaingan virus (NGAV)

 

Ord River hapavirus

Ord River virus (ORV)

 

Parry Creek hapavirus

Parry Creek virus (PCV)

 

Wongabel hapavirus

Wongabel virus (WONV)

Ledantevirus

Barur ledantevirus

Barur virus (BARV)

 

Fikirini ledantevirus

Fikirini virus (FKRV)

 

Fukuoka ledantevirus

Fukuoka virus (FUKV)

 

Kanyawara ledantevirus

Kanyawara virus (KYAV)

 

Kern Canyon ledantevirus

Kern Canyon virus (KCV)

 

Keuraliba ledantevirus

Keuraliba virus (KEUV)

 

Kolente ledantevirus

Kolente virus (KOLEV)

 

Kumasi ledantevirus

Kumasi rhabdovirus (KRV)

 

Le Dantec ledantevirus*

Le Dantec virus (LDV)

 

Mount Elgon bat ledantevirus

Mount Elgon bat virus (MEBV)

 

Nishimuro ledantevirus

Nishimuro virus (NISV)

 

Nkolbisson ledantevirus

Nkolbisson virus (NKOV)

 

Oita ledantevirus

Oita virus (OITAV)

 

Vaprio ledantevirus

Vaprio virus (VAPV)

 

Wuhan ledantevirus

Wuhan louse fly virus 5 (WLFV-5)

 

Yongjia ledantevirus

Yongjia tick virus 2 (YTV-2)

Lyssavirus

Aravan lyssavirus

Aravan virus (ARAV)

 

Australian bat lyssavirus

Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV)

 

Bokeloh bat lyssavirus

Bokeloh bat lyssavirus (BBLV)

 

Duvenhage lyssavirus

Duvenhage virus (DUVV)

 

European bat 1 lyssavirus

European bat lyssavirus 1 (EBLV-1)

 

European bat 2 lyssavirus

European bat lyssavirus 2 (EBLV-2)

 

Gannoruwa bat lyssavirus

Gannoruwa bat lyssavirus (GBLV)

 

Ikoma lyssavirus

Ikoma lyssavirus (IKOV)

 

Irkut lyssavirus

Irkut virus (IRKV)

 

Khujand lyssavirus

Khujand virus (KHUV)

 

Lagos bat lyssavirus

Lagos bat virus (LBV)

 

Lleida bat lyssavirus

Lleida bat lyssavirus (LLEBV)

 

Mokola lyssavirus

Mokola virus (MOKV)

 

Rabies lyssavirus*

rabies virus (RABV)

 

Shimoni bat lyssavirus

Shimoni bat virus (SHIBV)

 

West Caucasian bat lyssavirus

West Caucasian bat virus (WCBV)

Novirhabdovirus

Hirame novirhabdovirus

hirame rhabdovirus (HIRRV = HIRV)

 

Piscine novirhabdovirus

viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV)

 

Salmonid novirhabdovirus*

infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV)

 

Snakehead novirhabdovirus

snakehead rhabdovirus (SHRV)

Nucleorhabdovirus

Datura yellow vein nucleorhabdovirus

datura yellow vein virus (DYVV)

 

Eggplant mottled dwarf nucleorhabdovirus

eggplant mottled dwarf virus (EMDV)

 

Maize fine streak nucleorhabdovirus

maize fine streak virus (MSFV)

 

Maize Iranian mosaic nucleorhabdovirus

maize Iranian mosaic virus (MIMV)

 

Maize mosaic nucleorhabdovirus

maize mosaic virus (MMV)

 

Potato yellow dwarf nucleorhabdovirus*

potato yellow dwarf virus (PYDV)

 

Rice yellow stunt nucleorhabdovirus

rice yellow stunt virus (RYSV)

  

rice transitory yellowing virus (RTYV)

 

Sonchus yellow net nucleorhabdovirus

Sonchus yellow net virus (SYNV)

 

Sowthistle yellow vein nucleorhabdovirus

sowthistle yellow vein virus (SYVV)

 

Taro vein chlorosis nucleorhabdovirus

taro vein chlorosis virus (TaVCV)

Perhabdovirus

Anguillid perhabdovirus

eel virus European X (EVEX)

 

Perch perhabdovirus*

perch rhabdovirus (PRV)

 

Sea trout perhabdovirus

lake trout rhabdovirus (LTRV)

Sigmavirus

Drosophila affinis sigmavirus

Drosophila affinis sigmavirus (DAffSV)

 

Drosophila ananassae sigmavirus

Drosophila ananassae sigmavirus (DAnaSV)

 

Drosophila immigrans sigmavirus

Drosophila immigrans sigmavirus (DImmSV)

 

Drosophila melanogaster sigmavirus*

Drosophila melanogaster sigmavirus (DMelSV)

 

Drosophila obscura sigmavirus

Drosophila obscura sigmavirus (DObsSV)

 

Drosophila tristis sigmavirus

Drosophila tristis sigmavirus (DTriSV)

 

Muscina stabulans sigmavirus

Muscina stabulans sigmavirus (MStaSV)

Sprivivirus

Carp sprivivirus*

spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV)

 

Pike fry sprivivirus

grass carp rhabdovirus (GrCRV)

  

pike fry rhabdovirus (PFRV)

  

tench rhabdovirus (TenRV)

Sripuvirus

Almpiwar sripuvirus

Almpiwar virus (ALMV)

 

Chaco sripuvirus

Chaco virus (CHOV)

 

Niakha sripuvirus*

Niakha virus (NIAV)

 

Sena Madureira sripuvirus

Sena Madureira virus (SMV)

 

Sripur sripuvirus

Sripur virus (SRIV)

Tibrovirus

Bas Congo tibrovirus

Bas-Congo virus (BASV)

 

Beatrice Hill tibrovirus

Beatrice Hill virus (BHV)

 

Coastal Plains tibrovirus

Coastal Plains virus (CPV)

 

Ekpoma 1 tibrovirus

Ekpoma virus 1 (EKV-1)

 

Ekpoma 2 tibrovirus

Ekpoma virus 2 (EKV-2)

 

Sweetwater Branch tibrovirus

Sweetwater Branch virus (SWBV)

 

Tibrogargan tibrovirus*

Bivens Arm virus (BAV)

  

Tibrogargan virus (TIBV)

Tupavirus

Durham tupavirus*

Durham virus (DURV)

 

Klamath tupavirus

Klamath virus (KLAV)

 

Tupaia tupavirus

tupaia virus (TUPV)

Varicosavirus

Lettuce big-vein associated varicosavirus*

lettuce big-vein associated virus (LBVaV)

Vesiculovirus

Alagoas vesiculovirus

vesicular stomatitis Alagoas virus (VSAV)

 

American bat vesiculovirus

American bat vesiculovirus (ABVV)

 

Carajas vesiculovirus

Carajas virus (CJSV)

 

Chandipura vesiculovirus

Chandipura virus (CHPV)

 

Cocal vesiculovirus

Cocal virus (COCV)

 

Indiana vesiculovirus*

vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus (VSIV)

 

Isfahan vesiculovirus

Isfahan virus (ISFV)

 

Jurona vesiculovirus

Jurona virus (JURV)

 

Malpais Spring vesiculovirus

Malpais Spring virus (MSPV)

 

Maraba vesiculovirus

Maraba virus (MARAV)

 

Morreton vesiculovirus

Morreton virus (MORV)

 

New Jersey vesiculovirus

vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus (VSNJV)

 

Perinet vesiculovirus

Perinet virus (PERV)

 

Piry vesiculovirus

Piry virus (PIRYV)

 

Radi vesiculovirus

Radi virus (RADV)

 

Yug Bogdanovac vesiculovirus

Yug Bogdanovac virus (YBV)

Unassigned

Moussa virus

Moussa virus (MOUV)

Family Sunviridae

Sunshinevirus

Reptile sunshinevirus 1*

Sunshine Coast virus (SunCV)

Family Xinmoviridae

Anphevirus

Bolahun anphevirus

Bolahun virus (BLHV)

  

Gambie virus (GAMV)

 

Dipteran anphevirus

Húběi diptera virus 11 (HbDV-11)

 

Drosophilid anphevirus

Drosophila unispina virus 1 (DuniV-1)

 

Odonate anphevirus

Húběi rhabdo-like virus 7 (HbRLV-7)

 

Orthopteran anphevirus

Húběi orthoptera virus 5 (HbOV-5)

 

Shuangao anphevirus

Shuāngào fly virus 2 (SgFV-2)

 

Xincheng anphevirus*

Xīnchéng mosquito virus (XcMV)

*Type species

1Includes Newcastle disease virus (NDV). 2Due to a formal classification mistake, this species was incorrectly named Synodus paramyxovirus in 2019. A proposal to change the species name to the correct “Synodus synodonvirus“ will be submitted prior to the next taxonomic proposal submission deadline. 3Due to a formal classification mistake, the species Bat mumps orthorubulavirus was not abolished as outlined in the original proposal to reorganize the family Paramyxoviridae. A proposal to abolish this species will be submitted prior to the next taxonomic proposal submission deadline

Please note that viruses are real objects that are assigned to concepts that are called taxa. Species, genera, families, and orders are taxa. Taxon names are always italicized and always begin with a capital letter. Virus names, on the other hand, are not italicized and are not capitalized, except if the name or a name component is a proper noun. This column lists the virus names with their correct (lack of) capitalization. Lists of viruses within a given species are provisional at this point and will likely be amended in the near future

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank Laura Bollinger (NIH/NIAID Integrated Research Facility at Fort Detrick, Frederick, MD, USA) for critically editing the manuscript.

Funding

This work was supported in part through Battelle Memorial Institute’s prime contract with the US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) under Contract No. HHSN272200700016I (J.H.K.) and with federal funds from the National Cancer Institute (NCI), National Institutes of Health (NIH), under Contract No. HHSN261200800001 (I.C.). U.J.B. received funding from the Intramural Research Program of NIH/NIAID. This work was also funded in part by Contract No. HSHQDC-15-C-00064 awarded by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Science and Technology Directorate (S&T) for the management and operation of The National Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures Center (NBACC), a federally funded research and development center operated by the Battelle National Biodefense Institute (V.W.); and NIH contract HHSN272201000040I/HHSN27200004/D04 and grant R24AI120942 (N.V., R.B.T.). This work was also supported by the UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra), Scottish Government and Welsh Government (grant number SV3500) (A.R.F.). This work was also supported by the 100-Talent Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Y.B.). Additional funding comes from Fapesp grants 2017/50222-0 (J.F.A), 2014/08458-9 (E.W.K) and 2016/01960-6 (C.C.J.), and Capes PNPD20132154-33141010001P4 (P.L.R.G). A.R.F. is financially supported by the UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) and the Scottish and Welsh governments. This research was also supported by the Italian Ministry of Health (WFR GR-2011-023505919).

Compliance with ethical standards

The views and conclusions contained in this document are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as necessarily representing the official policies, either expressed or implied, of the US Department of the Army, the US Department of Defense, the US Department of Health and Human Services, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Science and Technology Directorate (S&T), or of the institutions and companies affiliated with the authors. In no event shall any of these entities have any responsibility or liability for any use, misuse, inability to use, or reliance upon the information contained herein. The US departments do not endorse any products or commercial services mentioned in this publication.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

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Copyright information

© This is a U.S. government work and its text is not subject to copyright protection in the United States; however, its text may be subject to foreign copyright protection 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pathology and ImmunologyWashington University School of MedicineSt. LouisUSA
  2. 2.Centro de Biotecnología y Genómica de PlantasUniversidad Politécnica de Madrid—Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y AlimentariaMadridSpain
  3. 3.Departamento de Biotecnología-Biología Vegetal, Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería Agronómica, Alimentaria y de BiosistemasUPMMadridSpain
  4. 4.Beijing Institute of GenomicsChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  5. 5.Center for Microbial Pathogenesis, Institute for Biomedical SciencesGeorgia State UniversityAtlantaUSA
  6. 6.United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort DetrickFrederickUSA
  7. 7.Australian Animal Health LaboratoryCSIRO Health and BiosecurityGeelongAustralia
  8. 8.Center for Infection and Immunity, and Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public HealthColumbia UniversityNew YorkUSA
  9. 9.VIPAC Unit, Agence Nationale de Sécurité Sanitaire, Laboratoire de Ploufragan-Plouzané-NiortUniversité Bretagne LoirePloufraganFrance
  10. 10.The University of Texas Medical BranchGalvestonUSA
  11. 11.Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Institute of Novel and Emerging Infectious DiseasesGreifswald-Insel RiemsGermany
  12. 12.RNA Viruses Section, Laboratory of Infectious DiseasesNational Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of HealthBethesdaUSA
  13. 13.Instituto BiológicoSão PauloBrazil
  14. 14.Department of Microbiology and ImmunologyAlbert Einstein College of MedicineBronxUSA
  15. 15.Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Lombardia e dell’Emilia RomagnaBresciaItaly
  16. 16.Integrated Research Facility at Fort Detrick (IRF-Frederick), Clinical Monitoring Research Program Directorate, FrederickNational Laboratory for Cancer Research sponsored by the National Cancer InstituteFrederickUSA
  17. 17.Department of Viroscience, Erasmus MCUniversity Medical Centre RotterdamRotterdamThe Netherlands
  18. 18.Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food Innovation, The University of QueenslandSt. LuciaAustralia
  19. 19.Institute of Virology, Philipps University MarburgMarburgGermany
  20. 20.Institute of VirologyCharité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of HealthBerlinGermany
  21. 21.Robert Koch InstitutBerlinGermany
  22. 22.Animal Production and Health Laboratory, Department of Nuclear Sciences and ApplicationsJoint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, International Atomic Energy AgencyViennaAustria
  23. 23.School of MedicineUniversity of PittsburghPittsburghUSA
  24. 24.School of Life SciencesUniversity of WarwickCoventryUK
  25. 25.Animal and Plant Health AgencyWeybridgeUK
  26. 26.World Health OrganizationGenevaSwitzerland
  27. 27.Embrapa National Cassava and Fruits Research CenterCruz das AlmasBrazil
  28. 28.Department of Microbiology and National Emerging Infectious Diseases LaboratoriesBoston University School of MedicineBostonUSA
  29. 29.Public Health EnglandSalisburyUK
  30. 30.The University of SydneySydneyAustralia
  31. 31.Hakubi Center for Advanced Research, Kyoto UniversityKyotoJapan
  32. 32.School of Veterinary MedicineMurdoch UniversityMurdochAustralia
  33. 33.State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, The Provincial Key Lab of Plant Pathology of Húběi Province, College of Plant Science and TechnologyHuázhōng Agricultural UniversityWuhanChina
  34. 34.Departamento de Fitopatologia e Nematologia, Escola Superior de Agricultura “Luiz de Queiroz, Universidade de São PauloPiracicabaBrazil
  35. 35.Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Infectious DiseasesUniversité LavalQuebec CityCanada
  36. 36.Institute of Plant Science and ResourcesOkayama UniversityKurashikiJapan
  37. 37.US Geological Survey Western Fisheries Research CenterSeattleUSA
  38. 38.US Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection, National Veterinary Services Laboratories, Diagnostic Virology LaboratoryNew YorkUSA
  39. 39.Department of Molecular BiosciencesNorthwestern UniversityEvanstonUSA
  40. 40.Howard Hughes Medical InstituteNorthwestern UniversityEvanstonUSA
  41. 41.Department of MicrobiologyIcahn School of Medicine at Mount SinaiNew YorkUSA
  42. 42.Centre International de Recherches Médicales de FrancevilleInstitut de Recherche pour le DéveloppementFrancevilleGabon
  43. 43.Department of Veterinary Biosciences, College of Veterinary MedicineThe Ohio State UniversityColumbusUSA
  44. 44.Zoonotic Infectious Diseases UnitKU Leuven, Rega InstituteLeuvenBelgium
  45. 45.Department of Biology and Microbiology, Department of Plant SciencesSouth Dakota State UniversityBrookingsUSA
  46. 46.Novosibirsk State UniversityNovosibirskRussia
  47. 47.Institute of VirologyUniversity of Veterinary MedicineViennaAustria
  48. 48.Department of Basic Medical Sciences, College of MedicineMohammed Bin Rashid University of Medicine and Health SciencesDubaiUnited Arab Emirates
  49. 49.Fish Disease Research Group, Department of Biological SciencesUniversity of BergenBergenNorway
  50. 50.National Biosafety LaboratoryNational Public Health CenterBudapestHungary
  51. 51.Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Parasitic DiseasesNational Institute for Communicable Diseases of the National Health Laboratory ServiceGautengSouth Africa
  52. 52.Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical SciencesTexas A&M UniversityCollege StationUSA
  53. 53.Centre for Experimental Medicine, School of Medicine, Dentistry and Biomedical SciencesThe Queen’s University of BelfastBelfastUK
  54. 54.National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and PreventionAtlantaUSA
  55. 55.Institute of Diagnostic Virology, Friedrich-Loeffler-InstitutGreifswald-Insel RiemsGermany
  56. 56.Nuffield Department of MedicineUniversity of OxfordOxfordUK
  57. 57.CBR Division, DstlSalisburyUK
  58. 58.School of Biomedical ScienceQueensland University of TechnologyBrisbaneAustralia
  59. 59.Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical SciencesColorado State UniversityFort CollinsUSA
  60. 60.Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture ScienceWeymouthUK
  61. 61.Division of Global EpidemiologyHokkaido University Research Center for Zoonosis ControlSapporoJapan
  62. 62.Institute for Frontier Life and Medical Sciences (inFront)Kyoto UniversityKyotoJapan
  63. 63.Institut Pasteur, Unité des Stratégies Antivirales, WHO Collaborative Centre for Viral Haemorrhagic Fevers and Arboviruses, OIE Reference Laboratory for RVFV and CCHFParisFrance
  64. 64.Institut Pasteur de GuinéeConakryGuinea
  65. 65.Viral Special Pathogens Branch, Division of High-Consequence Pathogens PathologyNational Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and PreventionAtlantaUSA
  66. 66.National Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures CenterFrederickUSA
  67. 67.School of Biological SciencesUniversity of QueenslandSt. LuciaAustralia
  68. 68.Programme in Emerging Infectious Diseases, Duke-NUS Medical SchoolSingaporeSingapore
  69. 69.Department of Entomology and Plant PathologyNorth Carolina State UniversityRaleighUSA
  70. 70.Departamento de Fitopatologia, Instituto de Biotecnologia Aplicada à AgropecuáriaUniversidade Federal de ViçosaViçosaBrazil
  71. 71.Chinese Center for Disease Control and PreventionNational Institute for Communicable Disease Control and PreventionBeijingChina
  72. 72.Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center and Institutes of Biomedical SciencesFudan UniversityShanghaiChina
  73. 73.Integrated Research Facility at Fort Detrick (IRF-Frederick), Division of Clinical Research (DCR)National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institutes of Health (NIH)FrederickUSA

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