Archives of Virology

, Volume 164, Issue 5, pp 1411–1417 | Cite as

Molecular characterization of bovine noroviruses and neboviruses in Turkey: detection of recombinant strains

  • Ilke Karayel-HaciogluEmail author
  • Feray Alkan
Brief Report


To investigate the molecular epidemiology and genetic diversity of bovine enteric caliciviruses, a total of 167 fecal samples from diarrheic calves were screened. Bovine noroviruses (BoNoVs) and neboviruses were detected in 56 (33.5%) and 37 (22.1%) fecal samples, respectively. Sequences of the RdRp and capsid gene of selected BoNoVs showed that the GIII.1 and GIII.2 genotypes were in circulation in Turkey. Two of the BoNoV strains were identified as recombinant strains (GIII.P1/GIII.2). All examined neboviruses possessed a Nebraska-like RdRp gene. The two nebovirus strains were classified into lineage 4 based on phylogenetic analysis of VP1 amino acid sequences. One of them showed evidence of a recombination event within the S domain. This study is thus the first to reveal the presence of the BoNoV GIII.1 genotype and recombinant strains of BoNoV and neboviruses in Turkey.



This manuscript represents a portion of a thesis submitted by IKH to the Department of Virology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ankara University, in fulfillment of the requirements for a PhD degree. We thank Dr. Krisztian Banyai for his support and advice as a supervisor during the Fellowship Program (2214A) at the Institute for Veterinary Medical Research, Centre for Agricultural Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary.


This project was funded by Ankara University Scientific Research Projects Coordination Unit (project no. 13L3338011). IKH was supported by the General National PhD Scholarship Program (2211A) and the International Doctoral Research Fellowship Program (2214A) of the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.

Supplementary material

705_2019_4186_MOESM1_ESM.jpg (2 mb)
Phylogenetic tree based on the deduced 137-aa sequences of the partial capsid gene sequence of BoNoVs. The tree was constructed by the maximum-likelihood method with bootstrap values calculated for 1000 replicates. The scale bar indicates amino acid substitutions per site. The strains investigated in this study are indicated by black dots. (JPEG 2004 kb)
705_2019_4186_MOESM2_ESM.docx (30 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOCX 30 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of VirologyAnkara University, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineAnkaraTurkey

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