Molecular characteristics of a novel recombinant of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus
Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) is a contagious viral disease in pigs, caused by the coronavirus porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV). PEDV infection results in significant mortality in piglets in unvaccinated herds. Like many others RNA viruses, PEDV has high evolutionary rate and is prone to genetic mutations. In this study, we analyzed the complete genome sequence of the recently sequenced isolate PEDV/Belgorod/dom/2008. A recombination event in S gene of PEDV/Belgorod/dom/2008 was detected. Pairwise identity analysis of the whole genome sequences revealed that PEDV/Belgorod/dom/2008 is an intermediate between PEDV and transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) strains. These results can be used for further analysis of the evolutionary variability, prevalence, and epidemiology of the porcine epidemic diarrhea virus.
We thank Olga Strizhakova for providing PEDV/Belgorod/dom/2008. We also acknowledge Yegor Bazykin and Alexey Neverov for fruitful discussions of virus evolution and recombination analysis. We appreciate Sandra Blome and Dennis Hanke for PEDV/Belgorod/dom/2008 complete genome sequencing.
Compliance with ethical standards
Our work was supported by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no competing interests.
- 1.Pensaert M (2006) Porcine epidemic diarrhea. In: Straw BE et al (eds) Diseases of swine, 9th edn. Blackwell, Ames, pp 367–372Google Scholar
- 4.Stevenson GW, Hoang H, Schwartz KJ, Burrough ER, Sun D, Madson D, Cooper VL, Pillatzki A, Gauger P, Schmitt BJ, Koster LG, Killian ML, Yoon KJ (2013) Emergence of Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in the United States: clinical signs, lesions, and viral genomic sequences. J Vet Diagn Investig 25:649–654. https://doi.org/10.1177/1040638713501675 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 6.Sun M, Ma J, Wang Y, Wang M, Song W, Zhang W, Lu C, Yao H (2015) Genomic and epidemiological characteristics provide new insights into the phylogeographical and spatiotemporal spread of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in Asia. J Clin Microbiol 53:1484–1492. https://doi.org/10.1128/JCM.02898-14 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 10.Oka T, Saif LJ, Marthaler D, Esseili MA, Meulia T, Lin CM, Vlasova AN, Jung K, Zhang Y, Wang Q (2014) Cell culture isolation and sequence analysis of genetically diverse US porcine epidemic diarrhea virus strains including a novel strain with a large deletion in the spike gene. Vet Microbiol 173:258–269. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2014.08.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 12.Hanke D, Jenckel M, Petrov A, Ritzmann M, Stadler J, Akimkin V, Blome S, Pohlmann A, Schirrmeier H, Beer M, Hoper D (2015) Comparison of porcine epidemic diarrhea viruses from Germany and the United States, 2014. Emerg Infect Dis 21:493–496. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.141165 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 13.Jarvis MC, Lam HC, Zhang Y, Wang L, Hesse RA, Hause BM, Vlasova A, Wang Q, Zhang J, Nelson MI, Murtaugh MP, Marthaler D (2015) Genomic and evolutionary inferences between American and global strains of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus. Prev Vet Med 123:175–184. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2015.10.020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 17.Lole KS, Bollinger RC, Paranjape RS, Gadkari D, Kulkarni SS, Novak NG, Ingersoll R, Sheppard HW, Ray SC (1999) Full-length human immunodeficiency virus type 1 genomes from subtype C-infected seroconverters in India, with evidence of intersubtype recombination. J Virol 73:152–160Google Scholar
- 22.Strizhakova OM, Malogolovkin AS, Titov IA, Zhivoderov SP, Kurinnov VV, Strizhakov AA (2017) Biological characteristics of an epizootic isolate BS-08 of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus. Veterinariya 3:31–34Google Scholar
- 23.Boniotti MB, Papetti A, Lavazza A, Alborali G, Sozzi E, Chiapponi C, Faccini S, Bonilauri P, Cordioli P, Marthaler D (2016) Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus and discovery of a recombinant swine enteric coronavirus, Italy. Emerg Infect Dis 22:83–87. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2201.150544 CrossRefGoogle Scholar