Evolutionary analyses of Sindbis virus strains isolated from mosquitoes in Kenya
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Sindbis virus (SINV) is a mosquito borne virus maintained in nature in a mosquito-bird cycle, with human outbreaks known to occur in Northern Europe and parts of Africa. We analyzed five SINV strains isolated in Kenya from five different mosquito species and geographic locations between 2007 and 2013. Phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary inferences were performed using maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic inference approaches. Selection analyses were carried out based on the virus envelope glycoproteins (E1, E2) and non-structural protein (nsP4) genes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all the Kenyan SINV isolates belonged to genotype 1 with selection analyses suggesting that SINV E1, E2 and nsP4 protein encoding genes were predominantly evolving under negative selection.
The authors wish to acknowledge Caroline Tigoi, Edith Chepkorir, Samuel Arum and the entire KEMRI-VHF Nairobi team for their technical assistance and support during the study.
This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Ethical clearance to conduct this study was sought and granted by the Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI) Ethics Review Committee (ERC), under protocol approval scientific steering committee (SSC) 2786.
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