Discovery of a novel iflavirus sequence in the eastern paralysis tick Ixodes holocyclus
Ixodes holocyclus, the eastern paralysis tick, is a significant parasite in Australia in terms of animal and human health. However, very little is known about its virome. In this study, next-generation sequencing of I. holocyclus salivary glands yielded a full-length genome sequence which phylogenetically groups with viruses classified in the Iflaviridae family and shares 45% amino acid similarity with its closest relative Bole hyalomma asiaticum virus 1. The sequence of this virus, provisionally named Ixodes holocyclus iflavirus (IhIV) has been identified in tick populations from northern New South Wales and Queensland, Australia and represents the first virus sequence reported from I. holocyclus.
We thank Ulrike Munderloh (University of Minnesota, US) for providing the ISE6 cell line and advice on its culture. We are also grateful to Dr. Jeff Grabowski and Dr. Lesley Bell-Sakyi (Pirbright Institute, UK) for their advice on tick cell culture. We thank Dr Stuart Geard and colleagues of Moruya Veterinary Hospital, Moruya, NSW; Dr Kerry Jackson, Elizabeth Miller and colleagues of Morvet Animal Hospital, Moruya; and Drs Sara Bailey and David Mitchell, and Emily Small and colleagues of Snowy River Veterinary Clinic, Orbost, Vic, for pointing Stephen Barker and Dayana Barker to ticky areas in southern NSW and Victoria, and for helping us collect ticks.
This study was funded by the Australian Research Council DP120103994. Transcriptome analysis of I. holocyclus viscera and salivary glands was funded by the Australian Research Council linkage project LP120200836 and Elanco Animal Health.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
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