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Archives of Virology

, Volume 163, Issue 8, pp 2295–2310 | Cite as

Taxonomy of the family Arenaviridae and the order Bunyavirales: update 2018

  • Piet Maes
  • Sergey V. Alkhovsky
  • Yīmíng Bào
  • Martin Beer
  • Monica Birkhead
  • Thomas Briese
  • Michael J. Buchmeier
  • Charles H. Calisher
  • Rémi N. Charrel
  • Il Ryong Choi
  • Christopher S. Clegg
  • Juan Carlos de la Torre
  • Eric Delwart
  • Joseph L. DeRisi
  • Patrick L. Di Bello
  • Francesco Di Serio
  • Michele Digiaro
  • Valerian V. Dolja
  • Christian Drosten
  • Tobiasz Z. Druciarek
  • Jiang Du
  • Hideki Ebihara
  • Toufic Elbeaino
  • Rose C. Gergerich
  • Amethyst N. Gillis
  • Jean-Paul J. Gonzalez
  • Anne-Lise Haenni
  • Jussi Hepojoki
  • Udo Hetzel
  • Thiện Hồ
  • Ní Hóng
  • Rakesh K. Jain
  • Petrus Jansen van Vuren
  • Qi Jin
  • Miranda Gilda Jonson
  • Sandra Junglen
  • Karen E. Keller
  • Alan Kemp
  • Anja Kipar
  • Nikola O. Kondov
  • Eugene V. Koonin
  • Richard Kormelink
  • Yegor Korzyukov
  • Mart Krupovic
  • Amy J. Lambert
  • Alma G. Laney
  • Matthew LeBreton
  • Igor S. Lukashevich
  • Marco Marklewitz
  • Wanda Markotter
  • Giovanni P. Martelli
  • Robert R. Martin
  • Nicole Mielke-Ehret
  • Hans-Peter Mühlbach
  • Beatriz Navarro
  • Terry Fei Fan Ng
  • Márcio Roberto Teixeira Nunes
  • Gustavo Palacios
  • Janusz T. Pawęska
  • Clarence J. Peters
  • Alexander Plyusnin
  • Sheli R. Radoshitzky
  • Víctor Romanowski
  • Pertteli Salmenperä
  • Maria S. Salvato
  • Hélène Sanfaçon
  • Takahide Sasaya
  • Connie Schmaljohn
  • Bradley S. Schneider
  • Yukio Shirako
  • Stuart Siddell
  • Tarja A. Sironen
  • Mark D. Stenglein
  • Nadia Storm
  • Harikishan Sudini
  • Robert B. Tesh
  • Ioannis E. Tzanetakis
  • Mangala Uppala
  • Olli Vapalahti
  • Nikos Vasilakis
  • Peter J. Walker
  • Guópíng Wáng
  • Lìpíng Wáng
  • Yànxiăng Wáng
  • Tàiyún Wèi
  • Michael R. Wiley
  • Yuri I. Wolf
  • Nathan D. Wolfe
  • Zhìqiáng Wú
  • Wénxìng Xú
  • Li Yang
  • Zuòkūn Yāng
  • Shyi-Dong Yeh
  • Yǒng-Zhèn Zhāng
  • Yàzhōu Zhèng
  • Xueping Zhou
  • Chénxī Zhū
  • Florian Zirkel
  • Jens H. KuhnEmail author
Virology Division News

Abstract

In 2018, the family Arenaviridae was expanded by inclusion of 1 new genus and 5 novel species. At the same time, the recently established order Bunyavirales was expanded by 3 species. This article presents the updated taxonomy of the family Arenaviridae and the order Bunyavirales as now accepted by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) and summarizes additional taxonomic proposals that may affect the order in the near future.

Introduction

The family Arenaviridae was established in 1976 to accommodate predominantly murid viruses with bisegmented, ambisense single-stranded RNA genomes that form enveloped particles with a “sandy” appearance [7]. Until recently, the family was monogeneric, including the single genus Arenavirus, with a steadily increasing number of species. The taxonomy of the family was substantially amended and emended [22] following the discovery of several distinct arenaviruses in alethinophidian snakes [4, 10, 24]. In particular, the genus Arenavirus was renamed Mammarenavirus, and a second genus, Reptarenavirus, was established in 2014 for several of the newly discovered snake viruses. A non-Linnean binomial species nomenclature was adopted for the entire family Arenaviridae [22] (ICTV TaxoProps [taxonomic proposals] 2014.011a-dV and 2014.012aV). Since then, the genus Mammarenavirus has been extended by 8 species for novel murid viruses discovered in Africa and Asia [3, 8, 11, 15, 21, 25] (TaxoProps 2014.013aV.A.v3.Mammarenavirus_2sp, 2015.001aM, 2016.014aM and 2016.019aM.A.v2.Mammarenavirus_sp).

The order Bunyavirales was established in 2017 to accommodate related viruses with segmented, linear, single-stranded, negative-sense or ambisense RNA genomes distributed among nine families (TaxoProp 2016.030a-vM). In particular, the then existing family Bunyaviridae was elevated to the rank of order. The three established bunyaviral genera Hantavirus, Nairovirus, and Tospovirus were renamed Orthohantavirus, Orthonairovirus, and Orthotospovirus and included in the newly established families Hantaviridae, Nairoviridae, and Tospoviridae, respectively (TaxoProp 2016.030a-vM). The genus Orthonairovirus was expanded by five species [13] (TaxoProp 2016.026a,bM). The family Peribunyaviridae was created to include the established bunyaviral genus Orthobunyavirus and a new genus, Herbevirus, for bunyaviruses discovered in invertebrates [14, 17] (TaxoProps 2016.024a-dM and 2016.030a-vM). The family Phenuiviridae was created to accommodate the established bunyaviral genus Phlebovirus, the previously “free-floating” plant virus genus Tenuivirus, and two new genera, Goukovirus and Phasivirus, for novel invertebrate bunyaviruses [16] (TaxoProps 2016.022a-dM and 2016.027a-dM). Three new families, Feraviridae, Jonviridae, and Phasmaviridae, were established for newly discovered invertebrate bunyaviruses [2, 14, 18] (TaxoProps 2016.021a-dM, 2016.025a-dM and 2016.028a-dM). In addition, the family Fimoviridae was created to accommodate the previously “free-floating” plant virus genus Emaravirus, which was expanded by three species for newly discovered plant viruses [5, 6, 26] (TaxoProps 2016.016aP, 2016.017aP, 2016.018aP, and 2016.030a-vM). Finally, a non-Linnean binomial species nomenclature was adopted for the entire family (TaxoProps 2016.020aM, 2016.023a-cM, 2016.026a,bM, 2016.029aM.A.v2.Tenuivirus_spren, and 2016.030a-vM).

After the establishment of the order Bunyavirales, the ICTV Study Groups responsible for the taxonomy of Arenaviridae and Bunyavirales assigned unclassified viruses to existing or novel taxa and continued streamlining order nomenclature in collaboration with other virus experts. Here we present the changes to both taxa that were proposed via official TaxoProps at http://www.ictvonline.org/ in 2017 and that were accepted by the ICTV Executive Committee. These changes are official ICTV taxonomy as of March 2018.

Family Arenaviridae

Taxonomic changes at the family rank

In 2018, the family was extended by addition of a novel genus, Hartmanivirus, for Haartman Institute snake virus (HISV) isolated from a captive boa constrictor in Finland [9, 10] (TaxoProp 2017.001M.A.v1.Hartmanivirus.zip). The genus Mammarenavirus was extended by addition of two novel species for Ryukyo virus (RYKV) and souris virus (SOUV) discovered in mice in China and Cameroon, respectively (TaxoProps 2017.002M.A.v2.Mammarenavirus_sp and 2017.003M.A.v1.Mammarenavirus_sp). Five mammarenavirus species were renamed due to the ICTV decision to disallow diacritic marks in taxon names (TaxoProp 2017.001G.A.v2.43spren): Amaparí mammarenavirus, Junín mammarenavirus, Paraná mammarenavirus, Pichindé mammarenavirus, and Sabiá mammarenavirus were renamed Serra do Navio mammarenavirus, Argentinian mammarenavirus, Paraguayan mammarenavirus, Cali mammarenavirus, and Brazilian mammarenavirus, respectively, whereas the member virus names remained unchanged (TaxoProp 2017.001G.A.v2.43spren). Finally, the three reptarenavirus species names Alethinophid 1 reptarenavirus, Alethinophid 2 reptarenavirus, and Alethinophid 3 reptarenavirus were renamed Golden reptarenavirus, California reptarenavirus, and Rotterdam reptarenavirus. Two new reptarenavirus species were created for tavallinen suomalainen mies virus 2 (TSMV-2) and University of Giessen viruses 1–3 (UGV-1–3) discovered in captive boa constrictors; several newly sequenced reptarenaviruses were assigned to existing species [9] (TaxoProp 2017.015M.A.v1.Reptarenavirus_2sp3ren).

Order Bunyavirales

Taxonomic changes at the order rank

In 2018, no changes were made at the order rank.

Taxonomic changes at the family rank

Feraviridae

In 2018, no changes were made at the family rank.

Fimoviridae

In 2018, no changes were made at the family rank.

Hantaviridae

In 2018, no changes were made at the family rank.

Jonviridae

In 2018, no changes were made at the family rank.

Nairoviridae

The family Nairoviridae was expanded in 2018 by addition of two new species for the long-known but previously unsequenced Artashat virus (ARTSV) and Chim virus (CHIMV), both originally isolated from ticks. In addition, the species Burana orthonairovirus was renamed Tamdy orthonairovirus to better reflect the discovery history of species members, and several newly sequenced nairoviruses were classified into existing species [1] (TaxoProp 2017.008M.A.v1.Orthonairovirus_2sp1ren).

Peribunyaviridae

The family Peribunyaviridae was expanded in 2018 by addition of a novel species for Wolkberg virus (WBV) discovered in wingless bat flies (Eucampsipoda africana) in South Africa [12] (TaxoProp 2017.007M.A.v1.Orthobunyavirus_sp).

Phasmaviridae

In 2018, no changes were made at the family rank.

Phenuiviridae

In 2018, no changes were made at the family rank.

Tospoviridae

In 2018, no changes were made at the family rank.

Outlook

The taxonomy of viruses of the family Arenaviridae and the order Mononegavirales remains in flux, and additional important changes are likely forthcoming. Indeed, in 2017, two additional taxonomic proposals that would affect the family Arenaviridae and the order Mononegavirales were debated during the most recent ICTV EC meeting in Singapore. TaxoProp 2017.006M.U.v2.Negarnaviricota proposes the
  • establishment of a phylum for negative-sense RNA viruses that is subdivided into two subphyla; and

  • establishment of a class including the order Bunyavirales, to be assigned to one of the subphyla.

TaxoProp 2017.012M.U.v2.Bunyavirales_rev proposes
  • dissolution of the families Feraviridae, Jonviridae, and Tospoviridae and absorption of their genera into remaining families;

  • the creation of three new bunyaviral families for novel invertebrate viruses [19, 20, 23];

  • the inclusion of the family Arenaviridae in the order; and

  • the creation of 19 new bunyaviral genera. These genera are planned to accommodate novel, mostly invertebrate, viruses [14, 23], but some of them are deemed necessary for reclassification of certain hantaviruses and phleboviruses.

These two proposals failed to find unanimous approval at a final ICTV EC vote in fall of 2017 and were deferred to the 2018 ICTV EC meeting, at which a simple majority vote would suffice for approval of the original proposals.

Summary

Summaries of the current, ICTV-accepted taxonomies of the family Arenaviridae and the order Bunyavirales are presented in Tables 1 and 2, respectively. These tables also include corrections and updates in virus name or abbreviation spelling.
Table 1

ICTV-accepted taxonomy of the family Arenaviridae as of 2018. Listed are all arenaviruses that have been classified into species

Genus

Speciesa

Virus (abbreviation)a

Hartmanivirus

Haartman hartmanivirus

Haartman Institute snake virus (HISV)

Mammarenavirus

Allpahuayo mammarenavirus

Allpahuayo virus (ALLV)

 

Argentinian mammarenavirus

Junín virus (JUNV)

 

Bear Canyon mammarenavirus

Bear Canyon virus (BCNV)

 

Brazilian mammarenavirus

Sabiá virus (SBAV)

 

Chapare mammarenavirus

Chapare virus (CHAPV)

 

Cupixi mammarenavirus

Cupixi virus (CUPXV)

 

Flexal mammarenavirus

Flexal virus (FLEV)

 

Gairo mammarenavirus

Gairo virus (GAIV)

 

Guanarito mammarenavirus

Guanarito virus (GTOV)

 

Ippy mammarenavirus

Ippy virus (IPPYV)

 

Lassa mammarenavirus

Lassa virus (LASV)

 

Latino mammarenavirus

Latino virus (LATV)

 

Loei River mammarenavirus

Loei River virus (LORV)

 

Lujo mammarenavirus

Lujo virus (LUJV)

 

Luna mammarenavirus

Luna virus (LUAV)

  

Luli virus (LULV)

 

Lunk mammarenavirus

Lunk virus (LNKV)

 

Lymphocytic choriomeningitis mammarenavirus b

lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV)

 

Machupo mammarenavirus

Machupo virus (MACV

 

Mariental mammarenavirus

Mariental virus (MRLV)

 

Merino Walk mammarenavirus

Merino Walk virus (MRWV)

 

Mobala mammarenavirus

mobala virus (MOBV)

 

Mopeia mammarenavirus

Mopeia virus (MPOV)

  

Morogoro virus (MORV)

 

Okahandja mammarenavirus

Okahandja virus (OKAV)

 

Oliveros mammarenavirus

Oliveros virus (OLVV)

 

Paraguayan mammarenavirus

Paraná virus (PRAV)

 

Cali mammarenavirus

Pichindé virus (PICHV)

 

Pirital mammarenavirus

Pirital virus (PIRV)

 

Ryukyu mammarenavirus

Ryukyu virus (RYKV)

 

Serra do Navio mammarenavirus

Amaparí virus (AMAV)

 

Solwezi mammarenavirus

Solwezi virus (SOLV)

 

Souris mammarenavirus

souris virus (SOUV)

 

Tacaribe mammarenavirus

Tacaribe virus (TCRV)

 

Tamiami mammarenavirus

Tamiami virus (TMMV)

 

Wenzhou mammarenavirus

Wēnzhōu virus (WENV)

 

Whitewater Arroyo mammarenavirus

Big Brushy Tank virus (BBRTV)

  

Catarina virus (CTNV)

  

Skinner Tank virus (SKTV)

  

Tonto Creek virus (TTCV)

  

Whitewater Arroyo virus (WWAV)

Reptarenavirus

California reptarenavirus

CAS virus (CASV)

 

Giessen reptarenavirus

University of Giessen virus 1 (UGV-1)

  

University of Giessen virus 2 (UGV-2)

  

University of Giessen virus 3 (UGV-3)

 

Golden reptarenavirus b

Golden Gate virus (GOGV)

 

Ordinary reptarenavirus

tavallinen suomalainen mies virus 2 (TSMV-2)

 

Rotterdam reptarenavirus

ROUT virus (ROUTV)

  

University of Helsinki virus 1 (UHV-1)

aPlease note that viruses are real objects that are assigned to concepts that are called taxa. Species, genera, families, and orders are taxa. Taxon names are always italicized and always begin with a capital letter. Virus names, on the other hand, are not italicized and are not capitalized, except if the name or a name component is a proper noun. This column lists the virus names with their correct (lack of) capitalization

bType species

Table 2

ICTV-accepted taxonomy of the order Bunyavirales as of 2018. Listed are all bunyaviruses that have been classified into species

Genus

Speciesa

Virus (abbreviation)a

Family Feraviridae

 Orthoferavirus

Ferak orthoferavirus b

ferak virus (FERV)

Family Fimoviridae

 Emaravirus

Actinidia chlorotic ringspot-associated emaravirus

Actinidia chlorotic ringspot-associated virus (AcCRaV)

 

European mountain ash ringspot-associated emaravirus b

European mountain ash ringspot-associated virus (EMARaV)

 

Fig mosaic emaravirus

fig mosaic virus (FMV)

 

High Plains wheat mosaic emaravirus

High Plains wheat mosaic virus (HPWMoV)

 

Pigeonpea sterility mosaic emaravirus 1

pigeonpea sterility mosaic virus (PPSMV)

 

Pigeonpea sterility mosaic emaravirus 2

pigeonpea sterility mosaic virus 2 (PPSMV-2)

 

Raspberry leaf blotch emaravirus

raspberry leaf blotch virus (RLBV)

 

Redbud yellow ringspot-associated emaravirus

redbud yellow ringspot-associated virus (RYRaV)

 

Rose rosette emaravirus

rose rosette virus (RRV)

Family Hantaviridae

 Orthohantavirus

Amga orthohantavirus

Amga virus (MGAV)c

 

Andes orthohantavirus

Andes virus (ANDV)

  

Castelo dos Sonhos virus (CASV)

  

Lechiguanas virus (LECV = LECHV)

  

Orán virus (ORNV)

 

Asama orthohantavirus

Asama virus (ASAV)

 

Asikkala orthohantavirus

Asikkala virus (ASIV)

 

Bayou orthohantavirus

bayou virus (BAYV)

  

Catacamas virus (CATV)

 

Black Creek Canal orthohantavirus

Black Creek Canal virus (BCCV)

 

Bowe orthohantavirus

Bowé virus (BOWV)

 

Bruges orthohantavirus

Bruges virus (BRGV)

 

Cano Delgadito orthohantavirus

Caño Delgadito virus (CADV)

 

Cao Bang orthohantavirus

Cao Bằng virus (CBNV)

  

Liánghé virus (LHEV)

 

Choclo orthohantavirus

Choclo virus (CHOV)

 

Dabieshan orthohantavirus

Dàbiéshān virus (DBSV)

 

Dobrava-Belgrade orthohantavirus

Dobrava virus (DOBV)

  

Kurkino virus (KURV)

  

Saaremaa virus (SAAV)

  

Sochi virus

 

El Moro Canyon orthohantavirus

Carrizal virus (CARV)

  

El Moro Canyon virus (ELMCV)

  

Huitzilac virus (HUIV)

 

Fugong orthohantavirus

Fúgòng virus (FUGV)

 

Fusong orthohantavirus

Fǔsōng virus (FUSV)

 

Hantaan orthohantavirus b

Amur virus (AMRV)

  

Hantaan virus (HTNV)

  

Soochong virus (SOOV)

 

Imjin orthohantavirus

Imjin virus (MJNV)

 

Jeju orthohantavirus

Jeju virus (JJUV)

 

Kenkeme orthohantavirus

Kenkeme virus (KKMV)

 

Khabarovsk orthohantavirus

Khabarovsk virus (KHAV)

  

Topografov virus (TOPV)

 

Laguna Negra orthohantavirus

Laguna Negra virus (LANV)

  

Maripa virus (MARV)

  

Río Mamoré virus (RIOMV)

 

Laibin orthohantavirus

Láibīn virus (LBV)

 

Longquan orthohantavirus

Lóngquán virus (LQUV)

 

Luxi orthohantavirus

Lúxī virus (LUXV)

 

Maporal orthohantavirus

Maporal virus (MAPV)

 

Montano orthohantavirus

Montaño virus (MTNV)

 

Necocli orthohantavirus

Necoclí virus (NECV)

 

Nova orthohantavirus

Nova virus (NVAV)

 

Oxbow orthohantavirus

Oxbow virus (OXBV)

 

Prospect Hill orthohantavirus

Prospect Hill virus (PHV)

 

Puumala orthohantavirus

Hokkaido virus (HOKV)

  

Muju virus (MUJV)

  

Puumala virus (PUUV)

 

Quezon orthohantavirus

Quezon virus (QZNV)

 

Rockport orthohantavirus

Rockport virus (RKPV)

 

Sangassou orthohantavirus

Sangassou virus (SANGV)

 

Seoul orthohantavirus

gōu virus (GOUV)

  

Seoul virus (SEOV)

 

Sin Nombre orthohantavirus

New York virus (NYV)d

  

sin nombre virus (SNV)

 

Thailand orthohantavirus

Anjozorobe virus

  

Serang virus (SERV)e

  

Thailand virus (THAIV)

 

Thottapalayam orthohantavirus

Thottapalayam virus (TPMV)

 

Tula orthohantavirus

Adler virus (ADLV)

  

Tula virus (TULV)

 

Yakeshi orthohantavirus

Yákèshí virus (YKSV)

Family Jonviridae

 Orthojonvirus

Jonchet orthojonvirus b

jonchet virus (JONV)

Family Nairoviridae

 Orthonairovirus

Artashat orthonairovirus

Artashat virus (ARTSV)

 

Chim orthonairovirus

Chim virus (CHIMV)

 

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever orthonairovirus

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV)

 

Dera Ghazi Khan orthonairovirus

Abu Hammad virus (AHV)f

  

Abu Mina virus (AMV)

  

Dera Ghazi Khan virus (DGKV)

  

Sapphire II virus (SAPV)

 

Dugbe orthonairovirus b

Dugbe virus (DUGV)

  

kupe virus (KUPEV)

 

Hazara orthonairovirus

Hazara virus (HAZV)

  

Tofla virus (TFLV)

 

Hughes orthonairovirus

Caspiy virus (CASV)

  

Farallon virus (FARV)

  

Great Saltee virus (GRSV)

  

Hughes virus (HUGV)

  

Punta Salinas virus (PSV)

  

Raza virus (RAZAV)

  

Soldado virus (SOLV)

  

Zirqa virus (ZIRV)

 

Kasokero orthonairovirus

Kasokero virus (KASV = KASOV)

  

Leopards Hill virus (LPHV)

  

Yogue virus (YOGV)

 

Keterah orthonairovirus

Gossas virus (GOSV)

  

Issyk-kul virus (ISKV)

  

Keterah virus (KTRV)g

  

Uzun-Agach virus (UZAV)

 

Nairobi sheep disease orthonairovirus

Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV)h

 

Qalyub orthonairovirus

Bandia virus (BDAV)

  

Geran virus (GERV)

  

Qalyub virus (QYBV)

 

Sakhalin orthonairovirus

Avalon virus (AVAV)

  

Clo Mor virus (CMV = CLMV)

  

Sakhalin virus (SAKV)

  

Taggert virus (TAGV)

  

Tillamook virus (TILLV)

 

Tamdy orthonairovirus

Burana virus (BURV)

  

Huángpí tick virus 1 (HpTV-1)

  

Tamdy virus (TAMV)

  

Tǎchéng tick virus 1 (TcTV-1)

  

Wēnzhōu tick virus (WzTV)

 

Thiafora orthonairovirus

Erve virus (ERVEV)

  

Thiafora virus (TFAV)

Family Peribunyaviridae

 Herbevirus

Herbert herbevirus b

Herbert virus (HEBV)

 

Kibale herbevirus

Kibale virus (KIBV)

 

Shuangao insect herbevirus 1

Shuāngào insect virus 1 (SgIV-1)

 

Tai herbevirus

Taï virus (TAIV)

 Orthobunyavirus

Acara orthobunyavirus

Acará virus (ACAV)

  

Moriche virus (MORV)

 

Akabane orthobunyavirus

Akabane virus (AKAV)

  

Sabo virus (SABOV)

  

Tinaroo virus (TINV)

  

Yaba-7 virus (Y7V)

 

Alajuela orthobunyavirus

Alajuela virus (ALJV)

  

Brus Laguna virus

  

San Juan virus (SJV)

 

Anopheles A orthobunyavirus

Anopheles A virus (ANAV)

  

Arumateua virus (ARTV)

  

Caraipé virus (CPEV)

  

Las Maloyas virus (LMV)

  

Lukuni virus (LUKV)

  

Trombetas virus (TRMV)

  

Tucuruí virus (TUCV)

 

Anopheles B orthobunyavirus

Anopheles B virus (ANBV)

  

Boracéia virus (BORV)

 

Bakau orthobunyavirus

Bakau virus (BAKV)

  

Ketapang virus (KETV)

  

Nola virus (NOLAV)

  

Tanjong Rabok virus (TRV)

  

Telok Forest virus (TFV)

 

Batama orthobunyavirus

Batama virus (BMAV)

 

Benevides orthobunyavirus

Benevides virus (BVSV)

 

Bertioga orthobunyavirus

Bertioga virus (BERV)

  

Cananéia virus (CNAV)

  

Guaratuba virus (GTBV)

  

Itimirim virus (ITIV)

  

Mirim virus (MIRV)

 

Bimiti orthobunyavirus

bimiti virus (BIMV)

 

Botambi orthobunyavirus

Botambi virus (BOTV)

 

Bunyamwera orthobunyavirus b

Anadyr virus (ANADV)

  

Batai virus (BATV)i

  

Birao virus (BIRV)

  

Bozo virus (BOZOV)

  

Bunyamwera virus (BUNV)

  

Cache Valley virus (CVV)

  

Fort Sherman virus (FSV)

  

Germiston virus (GERV)

  

Ilesha virus (ILEV)

  

Lokern virus (LOKV)

  

Maguari virus (MAGV)

  

Mboké virus (MBOV)

  

Ngari virus (NRIV)j

  

Northway virus (NORV)

  

Playas virus (PLAV)

  

Potosi virus (POTV)

  

Santa Rosa virus (SARV)

  

Shokwe virus (SHOV)

  

Stanfield virus (STAV)

  

Tensaw virus (TENV)

  

Tlacotalpan virus (TLAV)

  

Xingu virus (XINV)

 

Bushbush orthobunyavirus

Benfica virus (BENV)

  

Bushbush virus (BSBV)

  

Juan Díaz virus (JDV)

 

Bwamba orthobunyavirus

Bwamba virus (BWAV)

  

Pongola virus (PGAV)

 

California encephalitis orthobunyavirus

Achiote virus (ACHOV)

  

California encephalitis virus (CEV)

  

infirmatus virus (INFV)

  

Inkoo virus (INKV)

  

Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV)

  

Jerry Slough virus (JSV)

  

Keystone virus (KEYV)

  

Khatanga virus (KHATV)k

  

La Crosse virus (LACV)

  

Lumbo virus (LUMV)

  

Melao virus (MELV)

  

Morro Bay virus (MBV)

  

San Angelo virus (SAV)

  

Serra do Navio virus (SDNV)

  

snowshoe hare virus (SSHV)

  

South River virus (SORV)

  

Ťahyňa virus (TAHV)

  

trivittatus virus (TVTV)

 

Capim orthobunyavirus

Capim virus (CAPV)

 

Caraparu orthobunyavirus

Apeú virus (APEUV)

  

Bruconha virus (BRUV)

  

Caraparú virus (CARV)

  

El Huayo virus

  

Itaya virus (ITYV)

  

Ossa virus (OSSAV)

  

Vinces virus (VINV)

 

Catu orthobunyavirus

Catú virus (CATUV)

 

Estero Real orthobunyavirus

Estero Real virus (ERV)

 

Gamboa orthobunyavirus

Calchaquí virus (CQIV)

  

Gamboa virus (GAMV)

  

Pueblo Viejo virus (PVV)

  

Soberanía virus

 

Guajara orthobunyavirus

Guajará virus (GJAV)

 

Guama orthobunyavirus

Ananindeua virus (ANUV)

  

Guamá virus (GMAV)

  

Mahogany Hammock virus (MHV)

  

Moju virus (MOJUV)

 

Guaroa orthobunyavirus

Guaroa virus (GROV)

 

Kaeng Khoi orthobunyavirus

Kaeng Khoi virus (KKV)

 

Kairi orthobunyavirus

Kairi virus (KRIV)

 

Koongol orthobunyavirus

koongol virus (KOOV)

  

wongal virus (WONV)

 

Madrid orthobunyavirus

Madrid virus (MADV)

 

Main Drain orthobunyavirus

Main Drain virus (MDV)

 

Manzanilla orthobunyavirus

Buttonwillow virus (BUTV)

  

Cát Quế virus (CQV)

  

Ingwavuma virus (INGV)

  

Inini virus (INIV)

  

Manzanilla virus (MANV)

  

Mermet virus (MERV)

 

Marituba orthobunyavirus

Gumbo Limbo virus (GLV)

  

Marituba virus (MTBV)

  

Murutucú virus (MURV)

  

Nepuyo virus (NEPV)

  

Restan virus (RESV)

  

Zungarococha virus (ZUNV)

 

Minatitlan orthobunyavirus

Minatitlán virus (MNTV)

  

Palestina virus (PLSV)

 

MPoko orthobunyavirus

M’Poko virus (MPOV)

  

Yaba-1 virus (Y1V)

 

Nyando orthobunyavirus

Nyando virus (NDV)

  

Eretmapodites virus (ERETV)

 

Olifantsvlei orthobunyavirus

Bobia virus (BIAV)

  

Dabakala virus (DABV)

  

Olifantsvlei virus (OLIV)

  

Oubi virus (OUBIV)

 

Oriboca orthobunyavirus

Itaquí virus (ITQV)

  

Oriboca virus (ORIV)

 

Oropouche orthobunyavirus

Facey’s paddock virus (FPV)

  

Iquitos virus (IQTV)d

  

Madre de Dios virus (MDDV)

  

Oropouche virus (OROV)

  

Perdões virus (PDEV)

  

Pintupo virus (PINTV)

  

Utinga virus (UTIV)

  

Utivé virus (UVV = UTVEV)

 

Patois orthobunyavirus

Abras virus (ABRV)

  

Babahoya virus (BABV)

  

Pahayokee virus (PAHV)

  

Patois virus (PATV)

  

Shark River virus (SRV)

 

Sathuperi orthobunyavirus

Douglas virus (DOUV)

  

Sathuperi virus (SATV)

 

Shamonda orthobunyavirus

Peaton virus (PEAV)

  

Sango virus (SANV)

  

Shamonda virus (SHAV)

 

Shuni orthobunyavirus

Aino virus (AINOV)

  

Kaikalur virus (KAIV)

  

Shuni virus (SHUV)

 

Simbu orthobunyavirus

Simbu virus (SIMV)

  

Oya virus (OYAV)

 

Tacaiuma orthobunyavirus

Tacaiuma virus (TCMV)

  

CoAr 1071 virus (CA1071V)

  

CoAr 3627 virus (CA3626V)

  

Virgin River virus (VRV)

 

Tete orthobunyavirus

Bahig virus (BAHV)

  

Matruh virus (MTRV)

  

Tete virus (TETEV)

  

Tsuruse virus (TSUV)

  

Weldona virus (WELV)

 

Thimiri orthobunyavirus

Thimiri virus (THIV)

 

Timboteua orthobunyavirus

Timboteua virus (TBTV)

 

Turlock orthobunyavirus

Lednice virus (LEDV)

  

Turlock virus (TURV)

  

Umbre virus (UMBV)

 

Wolkberg orthobunyavirus

Wolkberg virus (WBV)

 

Wyeomyia orthobunyavirus

Anhembi virus (AMBV)

  

BeAr 328208 virus (BAV)

  

Cachoeira Porteira virus (CPOV)

  

Iaco virus (IACOV)

  

Macauã virus (MCAV)

  

Rio Pracupi virus

  

Sororoca virus (SORV)

  

Taiassui virus (TAIAV)

  

Tucunduba virus (TUCV)

  

Wyeomyia virus (WYOV)

 

Zegla orthobunyavirus

Zegla virus (ZEGV)

Family Phasmaviridae

 Orthophasmavirus

Kigluaik phantom orthophasmavirus b

Kigluaik phantom virus (KIGV)

 

Nome phantom orthophasmavirus

Nome phantom virus (NOMV)

 

Shuangao insect orthophasmavirus 2

Shuāngào insect virus 2 (SgIV-2)

 

Wuchang cockroach orthophasmavirus 1

Wǔchāng cockroach virus 1 (WcCV-1)

 

Wuhan mosquito orthophasmavirus 1

Wǔhàn mosquito virus 1 (WhMV-1)

 

Wuhan mosquito orthophasmavirus 2

Wǔhàn mosquito virus 2 (WhMV-2)

Family Phenuiviridae

 Goukovirus

Cumuto goukovirus

Cumuto virus (CUMV)

 

Gouleako goukovirus b

Gouléako virus (GOLV)

 

Yichang insect goukovirus

Yíchāng insect virus (YcIV)

 Phasivirus

Badu phasivirus b

Badu virus (BADUV)

 

Phasi Charoen-like phasivirus

Phasi Chaeron-like virus (PCLV)

 

Wuhan fly phasivirus

Wǔhàn fly virus 1 (WhFV-1)

 

Wutai mosquito phasivirus

Wǔtái mosquito virus (WtMV)

 Phlebovirus

Bujaru phlebovirus

Bujaru virus (BUJV)

  

Munguba virus (MUNV)

 

Candiru phlebovirus

Alenquer virus (ALEV)

  

Ariquemes virus (ARQV)

  

Candiru virus (CDUV)

  

Itaituba virus (ITAV)

  

Jacundá virus (JCNV)

  

Maldonado virus (MLOV)

  

Morumbi virus (MR(M)BV)

  

Mucura virus (MCRV/MRAV)

  

Nique virus (NIQV)

  

Oriximiná virus (ORXV)

  

Serra Norte virus (SRNV)

  

Turuna virus (TUAV)

 

Chilibre phlebovirus

Cacao virus (CACV)

  

Chilibre virus (CHIV)

 

Frijoles phlebovirus

Frijoles virus (FRIV)

  

Joá virus (JOAV)

 

Punta Toro phlebovirus

Buenaventura virus (BUEV)

  

Campana virus (CMAV)

  

Capira virus (CAPIV)

  

Coclé virus (CCLV)

  

Leticia virus (LTCV)

  

Punta Toro virus (PTV)

 

Rift Valley fever phlebovirus b

Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV)

 

Salehabad phlebovirus

Adana virus (ADAV)

  

Adria virus (ADRV)

  

Alcube virus

  

Arbia virus (ARBV)

  

Arumowot virus (AMTV)

  

Medjerda Valley virus

  

Odrénisrou virus (ODRV)

  

Olbia virus (OLBV)

  

Salehabad virus (SALV)

  

Bregalaka virus (BREV)

  

Zaba virus (ZABAV)

 

Sandfly fever Naples phlebovirus

Arrábida virus (ARRV)

  

Balkan virus (BALKV)

  

Fermo virus (FERV)

  

Gordil virus (GORV)

  

Granada virus (GRV = GRAV)

  

Massilia virus (MASV)

  

Punique virus (PUNV)

  

Saddaguia virus (SADV)

  

Saint-Floris virus (SAFV)

  

sandfly fever Naples virus (SFNV)

  

Tehran virus (THEV)

  

Toscana virus (TOSV)

  

Zerdali virus (ZERV)

 

SFTS phlebovirus

severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV)

 

Uukuniemi phlebovirus

Chizé virus (CHZV)

  

EgAN 1825-61 virus (EGAV)

  

Fin V 707 virus (FINV)

  

Oceanside virus (OCV = OCEV)

  

Pontevès virus (PTVV)

  

St. Abbs Head virus (SAHV)

  

Uukuniemi virus (UUKV)

  

Zaliv Terpenyia virus (ZTV)

 Tenuivirus

Echinochloa hoja blanca tenuivirus

Echinochloa hoja blanca virus (EHBV)

 

Iranian wheat stripe tenuivirus

Iranian wheat stripe virus (IWSV)

 

Maize stripe tenuivirus

maize stripe virus (MStV = MSpV)

 

Rice grassy stunt tenuivirus

rice grassy stunt virus (RGSV)

 

Rice hoja blanca tenuivirus

rice hoja blanca virus (RHBV)

 

Rice stripe tenuivirus b

rice stripe virus (RSV = RStV)

 

Urochloa hoja blanca tenuivirus

Urochloa hoja blanca virus (UHBV)

Family Tospoviridae

 Orthotospovirus

Groundnut bud necrosis orthotospovirus

groundnut bud necrosis virus (GBNV)l

 

Groundnut ringspot orthotospovirus

groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV)

 

Groundnut yellow spot orthotospovirus

groundnut yellow spot virus (GYSV)m

 

Impatiens necrotic spot orthotospovirus

impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV)

 

Iris yellow spot orthotospovirus

iris yellow spot virus (IYSV)

 

Polygonum ringspot orthotospovirus

Polygonum ringspot virus (PolRSV)

 

Tomato chlorotic spot orthotospovirus

tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV)

 

Tomato spotted wilt orthotospovirus b

tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV)

 

Watermelon bud necrosis orthotospovirus

watermelon bud necrosis virus (WBNV)

 

Watermelon silver mottle orthotospovirus

watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV)

 

Zucchini lethal chlorosis orthotospovirus

zucchini lethal chlorosis virus (ZLCV)

aPlease note that viruses are real objects that are assigned to concepts that are called taxa. Species, genera, families, and orders are taxa. Taxon names are always italicized and always begin with a capital letter. Virus names, on the other hand, are not italicized and are not capitalized, except if the name or a name component is a proper noun. This column lists the virus names with their correct (lack of) capitalization. Lists of viruses within a given species are provisional at this point and will likely be amended in the near future

bType species

cSynonym: Artybash virus (ARTV)

dSynonym: New York 1 virus (NY-1V)

eSynonym: Jurong virus

fIncludes the strain previously referred to as Tunis virus (TUNV)

gIncludes the strain previously referred to as soft tick bunyavirus (STBV)

hIncludes the strain previously referred to as Ganjam virus (GANV)

iSynonyms: Čalovo virus (CVOV), Chittoor virus (CHITV), Olkya virus, Olyka virus, UgMP-6830 virus

jIncludes the strain previously referred to as Garissa virus

kAlso mistakenly referred to in the literature as Chantanga virus (CHATV) and Chatanga virus (CHATV)

lSynonym: peanut bud necrosis virus (PDNV)

mSynonym: peanut yellow spot virus (PYSV)

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank Laura Bollinger (NIH/NIAID Integrated Research Facility at Fort Detrick, Frederick, MD, USA) and F. Murilo Zerbini (BIOAGRO, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, Brazil) for critically editing the manuscript.

Funding

This work was supported in part through Battelle Memorial Institute’s prime contract with the US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) under Contract No. HHSN272200700016I (J.H.K.). This work was also funded in part by National Institutes of Health (NIH) contract HHSN272201000040I/HHSN27200004/D04 and Grant R24AI120942 (N.V., R.B.T.), intramural funds of the US Department of Health and Human Services to the US National Library of Medicine (E.V.K. and Y.I.W.), and the 100-Talent Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the National Key R&D Program of China (2016YFE0206600) and the International Union of Biological Sciences (Y.B.).

Compliance with ethical standards

Ethical approval

The views and conclusions contained in this document are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as necessarily representing the official policies, either expressed or implied, of the US Department of the Army, the US Department of Defense, the US Department of Health and Human Services, or of the institutions and companies affiliated with the authors. In no event shall any of these entities have any responsibility or liability for any use, misuse, inability to use, or reliance upon the information contained herein. The US departments do not endorse any products or commercial services mentioned in this publication.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

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Copyright information

© This is a U.S. government work and its text is not subject to copyright protection in the United States; however, its text may be subject to foreign copyright protection 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Zoonotic Infectious Diseases UnitKU LeuvenLeuvenBelgium
  2. 2.D. I. Ivanovsky Institute of Virology, N. F. Gamaleya Federal Research Center for Epidemiology and Microbiology, Ministry of Health of the Russian FederationMoscowRussia
  3. 3.Beijing Institute of Genomics, Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  4. 4.Institute of Diagnostic Virology, Friedrich-Loeffler-InstitutGreifswald-Insel RiemsGermany
  5. 5.Centre for Emerging Zoonotic and Parasitic Diseases, National Institute for Communicable Diseases, National Health Laboratory ServiceSandringhamSouth Africa
  6. 6.Department of Epidemiology, Center for Infection and Immunity, Mailman School of Public HealthColumbia University, New YorkNew YorkUSA
  7. 7.Department of Molecular Biology and BiochemistryUniversity of CaliforniaIrvineUSA
  8. 8.Arthropod-Borne and Infectious Diseases Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical SciencesColorado State UniversityFort CollinsUSA
  9. 9.Unité des Virus EmergentsAix-Marseille University, IRD 190, Inserm 1207, IHU Méditerranée InfectionMarseilleFrance
  10. 10.Plant Breeding Genetics and Biotechnology DivisionInternational Rice Research InstituteLos BañosPhilippines
  11. 11.Les MandinauxLe Grand MadieuFrance
  12. 12.Department of Immunology and Microbial ScienceIMM-6, The Scripps Research InstituteLa JollaUSA
  13. 13.Blood Systems Research InstituteSan FranciscoUSA
  14. 14.Department of Laboratory MedicineUniversity of California, San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA
  15. 15.Departments of Medicine, Biochemistry and Biophysics, and MicrobiologyUniversity of CaliforniaSan FranciscoUSA
  16. 16.Division of Agriculture, Department of Plant PathologyUniversity of Arkansas SystemFayettevilleUSA
  17. 17.Istituto per la Protezione Sostenibile delle Piante, Consiglio Nazionale delle RicercheBariItaly
  18. 18.Istituto Agronomico MediterraneoValenzanoItaly
  19. 19.Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Center for Genome Research and BiocomputingOregon State UniversityCorvallisUSA
  20. 20.Institute of Virology, Charité, Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Free University Berlin, Berlin Institute of HealthHumboldt-University BerlinBerlinGermany
  21. 21.Institute of VirologyUniversity of Bonn Medical CentreBonnGermany
  22. 22.German Centre for Infection ResearchBraunschweigGermany
  23. 23.Institute of Pathogen Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical SciencesBeijingChina
  24. 24.Department of Molecular MedicineMayo ClinicRochesterUSA
  25. 25.MetabiotaSan FranciscoUSA
  26. 26.Center of Excellence for Emerging and Zoonotic Animal DiseaseKansas State UniversityManhattanUSA
  27. 27.Institut Jacques Monod, CNRSUniversité Paris-DiderotParisFrance
  28. 28.Department of VirologyUniversity of Helsinki, MedicumHelsinkiFinland
  29. 29.Vetsuisse Faculty, Institute of Veterinary PathologyUniversity of ZurichZurichSwitzerland
  30. 30.Department of Veterinary Biosciences, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineUniversity of HelsinkiHelsinkiFinland
  31. 31.State Key Laboratory of AgromicrobiologyHuazhong Agricultural UniversityWuhanChina
  32. 32.Division of Plant PathologyIndian Agricultural Research InstituteNew DelhiIndia
  33. 33.Department of Medical Virology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Centre for Viral ZoonosesUniversity of PretoriaPretoriaSouth Africa
  34. 34.MOH Key Laboratory of Systems Biology of Pathogens, Institute of Pathogen Biology, Peking Union Medical CollegeChinese Academy of Medical SciencesBeijingChina
  35. 35.Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious DiseasesBeijingChina
  36. 36.Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Center for Fungal Pathogenesis, College of Agriculture and Life SciencesSeoul National UniversitySeoulKorea
  37. 37.United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Horticultural Crops Research LaboratoryCorvallisUSA
  38. 38.National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of HealthBethesdaUSA
  39. 39.Laboratory of Virology, Department of Plant SciencesWageningen UniversityWageningenThe Netherlands
  40. 40.Department of MicrobiologyInstitut PasteurParisFrance
  41. 41.Division of Vector-Borne DiseasesNational Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and PreventionFort CollinsUSA
  42. 42.Department of Entomology and Plant PathologyNorth Carolina State UniversityRaleighUSA
  43. 43.MosaicYaoundéCameroon
  44. 44.Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Medicine, Center for Predictive Medicine for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious DiseasesUniversity of LouisvilleLouisvilleUSA
  45. 45.Department of Plant, Soil and Food SciencesUniversity “Aldo Moro”BariItaly
  46. 46.Biocentre Klein FlottbekUniversity of HamburgHamburgGermany
  47. 47.Evandro Chagas Institute, Ministry of HealthParáBrazil
  48. 48.Department of Pathology, Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious DiseasesUniversity of Texas Medical BranchGalvestonUSA
  49. 49.United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious DiseasesFrederickUSA
  50. 50.Galveston National LaboratoryUniversity of Texas Medical BranchGalvestonUSA
  51. 51.Instituto de Biotecnología y Biología Molecular, Centro Cientifico Technológico-La Plata, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y TécnicasUniversidad Nacional de La PlataLa PlataArgentina
  52. 52.Blueprint GeneticsHelsinkiFinland
  53. 53.Institute of Human VirologyUniversity of Maryland School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA
  54. 54.Summerland Research and Development Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food CanadaSummerlandCanada
  55. 55.Department of Planning and CoordinationNational Agriculture and Food Research OrganizationTsukubaJapan
  56. 56.Asian Center for Bioresources and Environmental SciencesUniversity of TokyoTokyoJapan
  57. 57.School of Cellular and Molecular MedicineUniversity of BristolBristolUK
  58. 58.Department of Microbiology, Immunology and PathologyColorado State UniversityFort CollinsUSA
  59. 59.International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT)HyderabadIndia
  60. 60.Department of Virology, Helsinki University HospitalUniversity of HelsinkiHelsinkiFinland
  61. 61.School of Biological SciencesUniversity of QueenslandSt. LuciaAustralia
  62. 62.Fujian Province Key Laboratory of Plant Virology, Institute of Plant VirologyFujian Agriculture and Forestry UniversityFuzhouChina
  63. 63.University of Nebraska Medical CenterOmahaUSA
  64. 64.Global ViralSan FranciscoUSA
  65. 65.Horticultural Crop (Fruit Trees) Biology and Germplasm Creation, Ministry of AgricultureWuhanChina
  66. 66.Key Laboratory of Plant Pathology of Hubei ProvinceWuhanChina
  67. 67.College of Plant Science and TechnologyHuazhong Agricultural UniversityWuhanChina
  68. 68.State Key Laboratory for Molecular Virology and Genetic EngineeringBeijingChina
  69. 69.National Chung-Hsing UniversityTaichung CityTaiwan
  70. 70.Department of Zoonoses, State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious DiseasesNational Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and PreventionBeijingChina
  71. 71.State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Diseases and Insect PestsInstitute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural SciencesBeijingChina
  72. 72.Division of Clinical Research (DCR), Integrated Research Facility at Fort Detrick (IRF-Frederick)National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institutes of Health (NIH)FrederickUSA

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