Advertisement

Archives of Virology

, Volume 164, Issue 4, pp 1233–1244 | Cite as

Taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales: second update 2018

  • Piet Maes
  • Gaya K. Amarasinghe
  • María A. Ayllón
  • Christopher F. Basler
  • Sina Bavari
  • Kim R. Blasdell
  • Thomas Briese
  • Paul A. Brown
  • Alexander Bukreyev
  • Anne Balkema-Buschmann
  • Ursula J. Buchholz
  • Kartik Chandran
  • Ian Crozier
  • Rik L. de Swart
  • Ralf G. Dietzgen
  • Olga Dolnik
  • Leslie L. Domier
  • Jan F. Drexler
  • Ralf Dürrwald
  • William G. Dundon
  • W. Paul Duprex
  • John M. Dye
  • Andrew J. Easton
  • Anthony R. Fooks
  • Pierre B. H. Formenty
  • Ron A. M. Fouchier
  • Juliana Freitas-Astúa
  • Elodie Ghedin
  • Anthony Griffiths
  • Roger Hewson
  • Masayuki Horie
  • Julia L. Hurwitz
  • Timothy H. Hyndman
  • Dàohóng Jiāng
  • Gary P. Kobinger
  • Hideki Kondō
  • Gael Kurath
  • Ivan V. Kuzmin
  • Robert A. Lamb
  • Benhur Lee
  • Eric M. Leroy
  • Jiànróng Lǐ
  • Shin-Yi L. Marzano
  • Elke Mühlberger
  • Sergey V. Netesov
  • Norbert Nowotny
  • Gustavo Palacios
  • Bernadett Pályi
  • Janusz T. Pawęska
  • Susan L. Payne
  • Bertus K. Rima
  • Paul Rota
  • Dennis Rubbenstroth
  • Peter Simmonds
  • Sophie J. Smither
  • Qisheng Song
  • Timothy Song
  • Kirsten Spann
  • Mark D. Stenglein
  • David M. Stone
  • Ayato Takada
  • Robert B. Tesh
  • Keizō Tomonaga
  • Noël Tordo
  • Jonathan S. Towner
  • Bernadette van den Hoogen
  • Nikos Vasilakis
  • Victoria Wahl
  • Peter J. Walker
  • David Wang
  • Lin-Fa Wang
  • Anna E. Whitfield
  • John V. Williams
  • Gōngyín Yè
  • F. Murilo Zerbini
  • Yong-Zhen Zhang
  • Jens H. KuhnEmail author
Virology Division News

Abstract

In October 2018, the order Mononegavirales was amended by the establishment of three new families and three new genera, abolishment of two genera, and creation of 28 novel species. This article presents the updated taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales as now accepted by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV).

Introduction

The virus order Mononegavirales was established in 1991 to accommodate related viruses with nonsegmented, linear, single-stranded, negative-sense RNA genomes classified into three families [12, 13]. According to the previous ratification vote held in March, 2018, the order included eight families [7]. Amended/emended order descriptions were published in 1995 [4], 1997 [14], 2000 [15], 2005 [16], 2011 [5], 2016 [1], 2017 [2], and March 2018 [3]. Here, we present the changes that were proposed via an official ICTV taxonomic proposal (TaxoProp 2017.016M.A.v1.Mononegavirales_rev) at http://www.ictvonline.org/ in 2017 and were accepted by the ICTV Executive Committee (EC) in October 2018. These changes are now part of the official ICTV taxonomy as of October 2018.

Taxonomic changes at the order rank

In October 2018, the order Mononegavirales was expanded by three families. The family Artoviridae was created for the established genus Peropuvirus (moved out of Nyamiviridae) and six new species for Běihǎi barnacle virus 8 (BhBV-8), Běihǎi rhabdo-like virus 1 (BhRLV-1), Běihǎi rhabdo-like virus 2 (BhRLV-2), Húběi rhabdo-like virus 5 (HbRLV-5), Húběi rhabdo-like virus 6 (HbRLV-6), and Húběi rhabdo-like virus 8 (HbRLV-8), all discovered in invertebrates [8, 17]. The family Lispiviridae was established for inclusion of the floating genus Arlivirus; the novel species Hubei arlivirus, Odonate arlivirus, and Wuchang arlivirus for Húběi rhabdo-like virus 3 (HbRLV-3), Húběi odonate virus 10 (HbOV-10), and Wǔchāng romanomermis nematode virus 2 (WcRNV-2) discovered in invertebrates; and the (renamed) species of the now abandoned free-floating genera Chengtivirus and Wastrivirus [8, 17]. The family Xinmoviridae was established for the floating genus Anphevirus, and six novel species were added to the genus for Bolahun virus (BLHV), Drosophila unispina virus 1 (DuniV-1), Húběi diptera virus 11 (HbDV-11), Húběi orthoptera virus 5 (HbOV-5), Húběi rhabdo-like virus 7 (HbRLV-7), and Shuāngào fly virus 2 (SgFV-2) discovered in invertebrates [6, 8, 9, 17].

Taxonomic changes at the family rank

Bornaviridae

In October 2018, no changes were made at the family rank.

Filoviridae

In October 2018, no changes were made at the family rank.

Mymonaviridae

In October 2018, six new species were added to the genus Sclerotimonavirus for Húběi rhabdo-like virus 4 (HbRLV-4), Sclerotinia sclerotiorum negative-stranded RNA virus 4 (SsNSRV-4), soybean leaf-associated negative-stranded RNA virus 1 (SLaNSRV-1), soybean leaf-associated negative-stranded RNA virus 2 (SLaNSRV-2), soybean leaf-associated negative-stranded RNA virus 3 (SLaNSRV-3), and soybean leaf-associated negative-stranded RNA virus 4 (SLaNSRV-4) associated with soybean leaves, invertebrates, and fungi [10, 11, 17].

Nyamiviridae

In October 2018, the free-floating genus Crustavirus was included in the family, and two novel species were added to that genus for Běihǎi rhabdo-like virus 6 (BhRLV-6) and Wēnlǐng crustacean virus 12 (WlCV-12) discovered in invertebrates. One genus, Peropuvirus, was moved from the family into the new family Artoviridae. Finally, the family was expanded by three novel genera that include a total of five new species for Běihǎi rhabdo-like virus 3 (BhRLV-3), Běihǎi rhabdo-like virus 4 (BhRLV-4), Běihǎi rhabdo-like virus 5 (BhRLV-5), Orinoco virus (ONCV), and Wēnzhōu tapeworm virus 1 (WzTWV-1) discovered in invertebrates [8, 17].

Paramyxoviridae

In October 2018, no changes were made at the family rank.

Pneumoviridae

In October 2018, no changes were made at the family rank.

Rhabdoviridae

In October 2018, no changes were made at the family rank.

Sunviridae

In October 2018, no changes were made at the family rank.

Summary

A summary of the current, ICTV-accepted taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales is presented in Table 1.
Table 1

ICTV-accepted taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales as of October 2018. Listed are all mononegaviruses that are classified into species

Genus

Species

Virus (Abbreviation)

Family Artoviridae

Peropuvirus

Barnacle peropuvirus

Běihǎi barnacle virus 8 (BhBV-8)

 

Beihai peropuvirus

Běihǎi rhabdo-like virus 1 (BhRLV-1)

 

Hubei peropuvirus

Húběi rhabdo-like virus 6 (HbRLV-6)

 

Odonate peropuvirus

Húběi rhabdo-like virus 8 (HbRLV-8)

 

Pillworm peropuvirus

Húběi rhabdo-like virus 5 (HbRLV-5)

 

Pteromalus puparum peropuvirus*

Pteromalus puparum negative-strand RNA virus 1 (PpNSRV-1)

 

Woodlouse peropuvirus

Běihǎi rhabdo-like virus 2 (BhRLV-2)

Family Bornaviridae

Carbovirus

Queensland carbovirus*

jungle carpet python virus (JCPV)

 

Southwest carbovirus

southwest carpet python virus (SWCPV)

Orthobornavirus

Elapid 1 orthobornavirus

Loveridge’s garter snake virus 1 (LGSV-1)

 

Mammalian 1 orthobornavirus*

Borna disease virus 1 (BoDV-1)

  

Borna disease virus 2 (BoDV-2)

 

Mammalian 2 orthobornavirus

variegated squirrel bornavirus 1 (VSBV-1)

 

Passeriform 1 orthobornavirus

canary bornavirus 1 (CnBV-1)

  

canary bornavirus 2 (CnBV-2)

  

canary bornavirus 3 (CnBV-3)

 

Passeriform 2 orthobornavirus

estrildid finch bornavirus 1 (EsBV-1)

 

Psittaciform 1 orthobornavirus

parrot bornavirus 1 (PaBV-1)

  

parrot bornavirus 2 (PaBV-2)

  

parrot bornavirus 3 (PaBV-3)

  

parrot bornavirus 4 (PaBV-4)

  

parrot bornavirus 7 (PaBV-7)

 

Psittaciform 2 orthobornavirus

parrot bornavirus 5 (PaBV-5)

 

Waterbird 1 orthobornavirus

aquatic bird bornavirus 1 (ABBV-1)

  

aquatic bird bornavirus 2 (ABBV-2)

Family Filoviridae

Cuevavirus

Lloviu cuevavirus*

Lloviu virus (LLOV)

Ebolavirus

Bundibugyo ebolavirus

Bundibugyo virus (BDBV)

 

Reston ebolavirus

Reston virus (RESTV)

 

Sudan ebolavirus

Sudan virus (SUDV)

 

Tai Forest ebolavirus

Taï Forest virus (TAFV)

 

Zaire ebolavirus*

Ebola virus (EBOV)

Marburgvirus

Marburg marburgvirus*

Marburg virus (MARV)

  

Ravn virus (RAVV)

Family Lispiviridae

Arlivirus

Hubei arlivirus

Húběi rhabdo-like virus 3 (HbRLV-3)

 

Lishi arlivirus*

Líshí spider virus 2 (LsSV-2)

 

Odonate arlivirus

Húběi odonate virus 10 (HbOV-10)

 

Gerrid arlivirus

Sānxiá water strider virus 4 (SxWSV-4)

 

Tacheng arlivirus

Tǎchéng tick virus 6 (TcTV-6)

 

Wuchang arlivirus

Wǔchāng romanomermis nematode virus 2 (WcRNV-2)

Family Mymonaviridae

Sclerotimonavirus

Dadou sclerotimonavirus

soybean leaf-associated negative-stranded RNA virus 3 (SLaNSRV-3)

 

Drop sclerotimonavirus

Sclerotinia sclerotiorum negative-stranded RNA virus 2 (SsNSRV-2)

  

Sclerotinia sclerotiorum negative-stranded RNA virus 4 (SsNSRV-4)

 

Glycine sclerotimonavirus

Fusarium graminearum negative-stranded RNA virus 1 (FgNSRV-1)

  

soybean leaf-associated negative-stranded RNA virus 1 (SLaNSRV-1)

 

Hubei sclerotimonavirus

Húběi rhabdo-like virus 4 (HbRLV-4)

 

Illinois sclerotimonavirus

soybean leaf-associated negative-stranded RNA virus 2 (SLaNSRV-2)

 

Phyllosphere sclerotimonavirus

soybean leaf-associated negative-stranded RNA virus 4 (SLaNSRV-4)

 

Sclerotinia sclerotimonavirus*

Sclerotinia sclerotiorum negative-stranded RNA virus 1 (SsNSRV-1)

  

Sclerotinia sclerotiorum negative-stranded RNA virus 3 (SsNSRV-3)

Family Nyamiviridae

Berhavirus

Beihai berhavirus

Běihǎi rhabdo-like virus 4 (BhRLV-4)

 

Echinoderm berhavirus

Běihǎi rhabdo-like virus 5 (BhRLV-5)

 

Sipunculid berhavirus*

Běihǎi rhabdo-like virus 3 (BhRLV-3)

Crustavirus

Beihai crustavirus

Běihǎi rhabdo-like virus 6 (BhRLV-6)

 

Wenling crustavirus

Wēnlǐng crustacean virus 12 (WlCV-12)

 

Wenzhou crustavirus*

Wēnzhōu crab virus 1 (WzCV-1)

Nyavirus

Midway nyavirus

Midway virus (MIDWV)

 

Nyamanini nyavirus*

Nyamanini virus (NYMV)

 

Sierra Nevada nyavirus

Sierra Nevada virus (SNVV)

Orinovirus

Orinoco orinovirus*

Orinoco virus (ONCV)

Socyvirus

Soybean cyst nematode socyvirus*

soybean cyst nematode virus 1 (SbCNV-1)

Tapwovirus

Tapeworm tapwovirus*

Wēnzhōu tapeworm virus 1 (WzTWV-1)

Family Paramyxoviridae

Aquaparamyxovirus

Salmon aquaparamyxovirus*

Atlantic salmon paramyxovirus (AsaPV)

Avulavirus

Avian avulavirus 1*

avian paramyxovirus 1 (APMV-1)1

 

Avian avulavirus 2

avian paramyxovirus 2 (APMV-2)

 

Avian avulavirus 3

avian paramyxovirus 3 (APMV-3)

 

Avian avulavirus 4

avian paramyxovirus 4 (APMV-4)

 

Avian avulavirus 5

avian paramyxovirus 5 (APMV-5)

 

Avian avulavirus 6

avian paramyxovirus 6 (APMV-6)

 

Avian avulavirus 7

avian paramyxovirus 7 (APMV-7)

 

Avian avulavirus 8

avian paramyxovirus 8 (APMV-8)

 

Avian avulavirus 9

avian paramyxovirus 9 (APMV-9)

 

Avian avulavirus 10

avian paramyxovirus 10 (APMV-10)

 

Avian avulavirus 11

avian paramyxovirus 11 (APMV-11)

 

Avian avulavirus 12

avian paramyxovirus 12 (APMV-12)

 

Avian avulavirus 13

avian paramyxovirus 13 (APMV-13)

 

Avian avulavirus 14

avian paramyxovirus 14 (APMV-14)

 

Avian avulavirus 15

avian paramyxovirus 15 (APMV-15)

 

Avian avulavirus 16

avian paramyxovirus 16 (APMV-16)

 

Avian avulavirus 17

Antarctic penguin virus A (APV-A)

 

Avian avulavirus 18

Antarctic penguin virus B (APV-B)

 

Avian avulavirus 19

Antarctic penguin virus C (APV-C)

Ferlavirus

Reptilian ferlavirus*

fer-de-lance virus (FDLV)

Henipavirus

Cedar henipavirus

Cedar virus (CedV)

 

Ghanaian bat henipavirus

Ghana virus (GhV)2

 

Hendra henipavirus*

Hendra virus (HeV)

 

Mojiang henipavirus

Mòjiāng virus (MojV)

 

Nipah henipavirus

Nipah virus (NiV)

Morbillivirus

Canine morbillivirus

canine distemper virus (CDV)

 

Cetacean morbillivirus

cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV)

 

Feline morbillivirus

feline morbillivirus (FeMV)

 

Measles morbillivirus*

measles virus (MeV)

 

Small ruminant morbillivirus

peste-des-petits-ruminants virus (PPRV)

 

Phocine morbillivirus

phocine distemper virus (PDV)

 

Rinderpest morbillivirus

rinderpest virus (RPV)

Respirovirus

Bovine respirovirus 3

bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3)

 

Human respirovirus 1

human parainfluenza virus 1 (HPIV-1)

 

Human respirovirus 3

human parainfluenza virus 3 (HPIV-3)

 

Porcine respirovirus 1

porcine parainfluenza virus 1 (PPIV-1)

 

Murine respirovirus*

Sendai virus (SeV)3

Rubulavirus

Achimota rubulavirus 1

Achimota virus 1 (AchPV-1)

 

Achimota rubulavirus 2

Achimota virus 2 (AchPV-2)

 

Bat mumps rubulavirus

bat mumps virus (BMV)4

 

Human rubulavirus 2

human parainfluenza virus 2 (HPIV-2)

 

Human rubulavirus 4

human parainfluenza virus 4a (HPIV-4a)

  

human parainfluenza virus 4b (HPIV-4b)

 

Mammalian rubulavirus 5

parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV-5)5

 

Mapuera rubulavirus

Mapuera virus (MapV)

 

Menangle rubulavirus

Menangle virus (MenPV)

 

Mumps rubulavirus*

mumps virus (MuV)

 

Porcine rubulavirus

La Piedad Michoacán Mexico virus (LPMV)6

 

Simian rubulavirus

simian virus 41 (SV-41)

 

Sosuga rubulavirus

Sosuga virus (SOSV)

 

Teviot rubulavirus

Teviot virus (TevPV)

 

Tioman rubulavirus

Tioman virus (TioPV)

 

Tuhoko rubulavirus 1

Tuhoko virus 1 (ThkPV-1)

 

Tuhoko rubulavirus 2

Tuhoko virus 2 (ThkPV-2)

 

Tuhoko rubulavirus 3

Tuhoko virus 3 (ThkPV-3)

Family Pneumoviridae

Metapneumovirus

Avian metapneumovirus*

avian metapneumovirus (AMPV)7

 

Human metapneumovirus

human metapneumovirus (HMPV)

Orthopneumovirus

Bovine orthopneumovirus

bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV)

 

Human orthopneumovirus*

human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV)

 

Murine orthopneumovirus

murine pneumonia virus (MPV)

Family Rhabdoviridae

Almendravirus

Arboretum almendravirus

Arboretum virus (ABTV)

 

Balsa almendravirus

Balsa virus (BALV)

 

Coot Bay almendravirus

Coot Bay virus (CBV)

 

Puerto Almendras almendravirus*

Puerto Almendras virus (PTAMV)

 

Rio Chico almendravirus

Rio Chico virus (RCHV)

Curiovirus

Curionopolis curiovirus*

Curionopolis virus (CURV)

 

Iriri curiovirus

Iriri virus (IRIRV)

 

Itacaiunas curiovirus

Itacaiunas virus (ITAV)

 

Rochambeau curiovirus

Rochambeau virus (RBUV)

Cytorhabdovirus

Alfalfa dwarf cytorhabdovirus

alfalfa dwarf virus (ADV)

 

Barley yellow striate mosaic cytorhabdovirus

barley yellow striate mosaic virus (BYSMV)

 

Broccoli necrotic yellows cytorhabdovirus

broccoli necrotic yellows virus (BNYV)

 

Colocasia bobone disease-associated cytorhabdovirus

Colocasia bobone disease-associated virus (CBDaV)

 

Festuca leaf streak cytorhabdovirus

Festuca leaf streak virus (FLSV)

 

Lettuce necrotic yellows cytorhabdovirus*

lettuce necrotic yellows virus (LNYV)

 

Lettuce yellow mottle cytorhabdovirus

lettuce yellow mottle virus (LYMoV)

 

Northern cereal mosaic cytorhabdovirus

northern cereal mosaic virus (NCMV)

 

Sonchus cytorhabdovirus 1

Sonchus virus (SonV)

 

Strawberry crinkle cytorhabdovirus

strawberry crinkle virus (SCV)

 

Wheat American striate mosaic cytorhabdovirus

wheat American striate mosaic virus (WASMV)

Dichorhavirus

Coffee ringspot dichorhavirus

coffee ringspot virus (CoRSV)

 

Orchid fleck dichorhavirus*

orchid fleck virus (OFV)

Ephemerovirus

Adelaide River ephemerovirus

Adelaide River virus (ARV)

 

Berrimah ephemerovirus

Berrimah virus (BRMV)

 

Bovine fever ephemerovirus*

bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV)

 

Kimberley ephemerovirus

Kimberley virus (KIMV)

  

Malakal virus (MALV)

 

Koolpinyah ephemerovirus

Koolpinyah virus (KOOLV)

 

Kotonkan ephemerovirus

kotonkan virus (KOTV)

 

Obodhiang ephemerovirus

Obodhiang virus (OBOV)

 

Yata ephemerovirus

Yata virus (YATV)

Hapavirus

Flanders hapavirus

Flanders virus (FLAV)

 

Hart Park hapavirus

Hart Park virus (HPV)

 

Gray Lodge hapavirus

Gray Lodge virus (GLOV)

 

Joinjakaka hapavirus

Joinjakaka virus (JOIV)

 

La Joya hapavirus

La Joya virus (LJV)

 

Kamese hapavirus

Kamese virus (KAMV)

 

Landjia hapavirus

Landjia virus (LANV = LJAV)

 

Manitoba hapavirus

Manitoba virus (MANV = MNTBV)

 

Marco hapavirus

Marco virus (MCOV)

 

Mosqueiro hapavirus

Mosqueiro virus (MQOV)

 

Mossuril hapavirus

Mossuril virus (MOSV)

 

Ngaingan hapavirus

Ngaingan virus (NGAV)

 

Ord River hapavirus

Ord River virus (ORV)

 

Parry Creek hapavirus

Parry Creek virus (PCV)

 

Wongabel hapavirus*

Wongabel virus (WONV)

Ledantevirus

Barur ledantevirus

Barur virus (BARV)

 

Fikirini ledantevirus

Fikirini virus (FKRV)

 

Fukuoka ledantevirus

Fukuoka virus (FUKV)

 

Kanyawara ledantevirus

Kanyawara virus (KYAV)

 

Kern Canyon ledantevirus

Kern Canyon virus (KCV)

 

Keuraliba ledantevirus

Keuraliba virus (KEUV)

 

Kolente ledantevirus

Kolente virus (KOLEV)

 

Kumasi ledantevirus

Kumasi rhabdovirus (KRV)

 

Le Dantec ledantevirus*

Le Dantec virus (LDV)

 

Mount Elgon bat ledantevirus

Mount Elgon bat virus (MEBV)

 

Nkolbisson ledantevirus

Nkolbisson virus (NKOV)

 

Nishimuro ledantevirus

Nishimuro virus (NISV)8

 

Oita ledantevirus

Oita virus (OITAV)

 

Wuhan ledantevirus

Wuhan louse fly virus 5 (WLFV-5)

 

Yongjia ledantevirus

Yongjia tick virus 2 (YTV-2)

Lyssavirus

Aravan lyssavirus

Aravan virus (ARAV)

 

Australian bat lyssavirus

Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV)

 

Bokeloh bat lyssavirus

Bokeloh bat lyssavirus (BBLV)

 

Duvenhage lyssavirus

Duvenhage virus (DUVV)

 

European bat 1 lyssavirus

European bat lyssavirus 1 (EBLV-1)

 

European bat 2 lyssavirus

European bat lyssavirus 2 (EBLV-2)

 

Gannoruwa bat lyssavirus

Gannoruwa bat lyssavirus (GBLV)

 

Ikoma lyssavirus

Ikoma lyssavirus (IKOV)

 

Irkut lyssavirus

Irkut virus (IRKV)

 

Khujand lyssavirus

Khujand virus (KHUV)

 

Lagos bat lyssavirus

Lagos bat virus (LBV)

 

Lleida bat lyssavirus

Lleida bat lyssavirus (LLEBV)

 

Mokola lyssavirus

Mokola virus (MOKV)

 

Rabies lyssavirus*

rabies virus (RABV)

 

Shimoni bat lyssavirus

Shimoni bat virus (SHIBV)

 

West Caucasian bat lyssavirus

West Caucasian bat virus (WCBV)

Novirhabdovirus

Hirame novirhabdovirus

hirame rhabdovirus (HIRV)

 

Piscine novirhabdovirus

viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV)9

 

Salmonid novirhabdovirus*

infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV)

 

Snakehead novirhabdovirus

snakehead rhabdovirus (SHRV)

Nucleorhabdovirus

Datura yellow vein nucleorhabdovirus

datura yellow vein virus (DYVV)

 

Eggplant mottled dwarf nucleorhabdovirus

eggplant mottled dwarf virus (EMDV)

 

Maize fine streak nucleorhabdovirus

maize fine streak virus (MSFV)

 

Maize Iranian mosaic nucleorhabdovirus

maize Iranian mosaic virus (MIMV)

 

Maize mosaic nucleorhabdovirus

maize mosaic virus (MMV)

 

Potato yellow dwarf nucleorhabdovirus*

potato yellow dwarf virus (PYDV)

 

Rice yellow stunt nucleorhabdovirus

rice yellow stunt virus (RYSV)

  

rice transitory yellowing virus (RTYV)

 

Sonchus yellow net nucleorhabdovirus

Sonchus yellow net virus (SYNV)

 

Sowthistle yellow vein nucleorhabdovirus

sowthistle yellow vein virus (SYVV)

 

Taro vein chlorosis nucleorhabdovirus

taro vein chlorosis virus (TaVCV)

Perhabdovirus

Anguillid perhabdovirus

eel virus European X (EVEX)

 

Perch perhabdovirus*

perch rhabdovirus (PRV)

 

Sea trout perhabdovirus

lake trout rhabdovirus (LTRV)

Sigmavirus

Drosophila affinis sigmavirus

Drosophila affinis sigmavirus (DAffSV)

 

Drosophila ananassae sigmavirus

Drosophila ananassae sigmavirus (DAnaSV)

 

Drosophila immigrans sigmavirus

Drosophila immigrans sigmavirus (DImmSV)

 

Drosophila melanogaster sigmavirus*

Drosophila melanogaster sigmavirus (DMelSV)

 

Drosophila obscura sigmavirus

Drosophila obscura sigmavirus (DObsSV)

 

Drosophila tristis sigmavirus

Drosophila tristis sigmavirus (DTriSV)

 

Muscina stabulans sigmavirus

Muscina stabulans sigmavirus (MStaSV)

Sprivivirus

Carp sprivivirus*

spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV)

 

Pike fry sprivivirus

grass carp rhabdovirus (GrCRV)

  

pike fry rhabdovirus (PFRV)

  

tench rhabdovirus (TenRV)

Sripuvirus

Almpiwar sripuvirus

Almpiwar virus (ALMV)

 

Chaco sripuvirus

Chaco virus (CHOV)

 

Niakha sripuvirus*

Niakha virus (NIAV)

 

Sena Madureira sripuvirus

Sena Madureira virus (SMV)

 

Sripur sripuvirus

Sripur virus (SRIV)

Tibrovirus

Bas Congo tibrovirus

Bas-Congo virus (BASV)

 

Beatrice Hill tibrovirus

Beatrice Hill virus (BHV)

 

Coastal Plains tibrovirus

Coastal Plains virus (CPV)

 

Ekpoma 1 tibrovirus

Ekpoma virus 1 (EKV-1)

 

Ekpoma 2 tibrovirus

Ekpoma virus 2 (EKV-2)

 

Sweetwater Branch tibrovirus

Sweetwater Branch virus (SWBV)

 

Tibrogargan tibrovirus*

Bivens Arm virus (BAV)

  

Tibrogargan virus (TIBV)

Tupavirus

Durham tupavirus*

Durham virus (DURV)

 

Klamath tupavirus

Klamath virus (KLAV)

 

Tupaia tupavirus

tupaia virus (TUPV)

Varicosavirus

Lettuce big-vein associated varicosavirus*

lettuce big-vein associated virus (LBVaV)10

Vesiculovirus

Alagoas vesiculovirus

vesicular stomatitis Alagoas virus (VSAV)

 

American bat vesiculovirus

American bat vesiculovirus (ABVV)

 

Carajas vesiculovirus

Carajas virus (CJSV)

 

Chandipura vesiculovirus

Chandipura virus (CHPV)

 

Cocal vesiculovirus

Cocal virus (COCV)

 

Indiana vesiculovirus*

vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus (VSIV)

 

Isfahan vesiculovirus

Isfahan virus (ISFV)

 

Jurona vesiculovirus

Jurona virus (JURV)

 

Malpais Spring vesiculovirus

Malpais Spring virus (MSPV)

 

Maraba vesiculovirus

Maraba virus (MARAV)

 

Morreton vesiculovirus

Morreton virus (MORV)

 

New Jersey vesiculovirus

vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus (VSNJV)

 

Perinet vesiculovirus

Perinet virus (PERV)

 

Piry vesiculovirus

Piry virus (PIRYV)

 

Radi vesiculovirus

Radi virus (RADV)

 

Yug Bogdanovac vesiculovirus

Yug Bogdanovac virus (YBV)

Unassigned

Moussa virus

Moussa virus (MOUV)

Family Sunviridae

Sunshinevirus

Reptile sunshinevirus 1*

Sunshine Coast virus (SunCV)

Family Xinmoviridae

Anphevirus

Bolahun anphevirus

Bolahun virus (BLHV)

  

Gambie virus (GAMV)

 

Dipteran anphevirus

Húběi diptera virus 11 (HbDV-11)

 

Drosophilid anphevirus

Drosophila unispina virus 1 (DuniV-1)

 

Odonate anphevirus

Húběi rhabdo-like virus 7 (HbRLV-7)

 

Orthopteran anphevirus

Húběi orthoptera virus 5 (HbOV-5)

 

Shuangao anphevirus

Shuāngào fly virus 2 (SgFV-2)

 

Xincheng anphevirus*

Xīnchéng mosquito virus (XcMV)

*Asterisks denote type species

1Includes Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and pigeon paramyxovirus 1 (PPMV-1)

2synonym: GH-M74a virus, Kumasi virus (KV)

3synonym: murine parainfluenza virus 1

4synonym: bat paramyxovirus

5synonym: simian virus 5

6synonym: porcine rubulavirus

7synonyms: avian pneumovirus, turkey rhinotracheitis virus

8synonym: wild boar rhabdovirus 1 (WBRV1)

9synonyms: Egtved virus, Paralichthys olivaceus rhabdovirus

10synonym: tobacco stunt virus

Please note that viruses are real objects that are assigned to concepts that are called taxa. Species, genera, families, and orders are taxa. Taxon names are always italicized and always begin with a capital letter. Virus names, on the other hand, are not italicized and are not capitalized, except if the name or a name component is a proper noun. This column lists the virus names with their correct (lack of) capitalization. Lists of viruses within a given species are provisional at this point and will likely be amended in the near future

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank Laura Bollinger (NIH/NIAID Integrated Research Facility at Fort Detrick, Frederick, MD, USA) for critically editing the manuscript.

Funding

This work was supported in part through Battelle Memorial Institute’s prime contract with the US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) under Contract no. HHSN272200700016I (J.H.K.). This project has been funded in whole or in part with federal funds from the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, under Contract No. HHSN261200800001E (I.C.). This work was also funded in part under Contract No. HSHQDC-15-C-00064 awarded by DHS S&T for the management and operation of the National Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures Center (NBACC), a federally funded research and development center (V.W.); and National Institutes of Health (NIH) contract HHSN272201000040I/HHSN27200004/D04 and Grant R24AI120942 (N.V., R.B.T.). This work was also supported by the UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra), Scottish Government and Welsh Government (Grant number SV3500) (A.R.F.).

Compliance with ethical standards

The views and conclusions contained in this document are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as necessarily representing the official policies, either expressed or implied, of the US Department of the Army, the US Department of Defense, the US Department of Health and Human Services, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Science and Technology Directorate (S&T), or of the institutions and companies affiliated with the authors. In no event shall any of these entities have any responsibility or liability for any use, misuse, inability to use, or reliance upon the information contained herein. The US departments do not endorse any products or commercial services mentioned in this publication.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

References

  1. 1.
    Afonso CL, Amarasinghe GK, Bányai K, Bào Y, Basler CF, Bavari S, Bejerman N, Blasdell KR, Briand F-X, Briese T, Bukreyev A, Calisher CH, Chandran K, Chéng J, Clawson AN, Collins PL, Dietzgen RG, Dolnik O, Domier LL, Dürrwald R, Dye JM, Easton AJ, Ebihara H, Farkas SL, Freitas-Astúa J, Formenty P, Fouchier RA, Fù Y, Ghedin E, Goodin MM, Hewson R, Horie M, Hyndman TH, Jiāng D, Kitajima EW, Kobinger GP, Kondo H, Kurath G, Lamb RA, Lenardon S, Leroy EM, Li C-X, Lin X-D, Liú L, Longdon B, Marton S, Maisner A, Mühlberger E, Netesov SV, Nowotny N, Patterson JL, Payne SL, Paweska JT, Randall RE, Rima BK, Rota P, Rubbenstroth D, Schwemmle M, Shi M, Smither SJ, Stenglein MD, Stone DM, Takada A, Terregino C, Tesh RB, Tian J-H, Tomonaga K, Tordo N, Towner JS, Vasilakis N, Verbeek M, Volchkov VE, Wahl-Jensen V, Walsh JA, Walker PJ, Wang D, Wang L-F, Wetzel T, Whitfield AE, Xiè JT, Yuen K-Y, Zhang Y-Z, Kuhn JH (2016) Taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales: update 2016. Arch Virol 161:2351–2360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Amarasinghe GK, Bào Y, Basler CF, Bavari S, Beer M, Bejerman N, Blasdell KR, Bochnowski A, Briese T, Bukreyev A, Calisher CH, Chandran K, Collins PL, Dietzgen RG, Dolnik O, Dürrwald R, Dye JM, Easton AJ, Ebihara H, Fang Q, Formenty P, Fouchier RAM, Ghedin E, Harding RM, Hewson R, Higgins CM, Hong J, Horie M, James AP, Jiāng D, Kobinger GP, Kondo H, Kurath G, Lamb RA, Lee B, Leroy EM, Li M, Maisner A, Mühlberger E, Netesov SV, Nowotny N, Patterson JL, Payne SL, Paweska JT, Pearson MN, Randall RE, Revill PA, Rima BK, Rota P, Rubbenstroth D, Schwemmle M, Smither SJ, Song Q, Stone DM, Takada A, Terregino C, Tesh RB, Tomonaga K, Tordo N, Towner JS, Vasilakis N, Volchkov VE, Wahl-Jensen V, Walker PJ, Wang B, Wang D, Wang F, Wang L-F, Werren JH, Whitfield AE, Yan Z, Ye G, Kuhn JH (2017) Taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales: update 2017. Arch Virol 162:2493–2504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Amarasinghe GK, Ceballos NGA, Banyard AC, Basler CF, Bavari S, Bennett AJ, Blasdell KR, Briese T, Bukreyev A, Caì Y, Calisher CH, Lawson CC, Chandran K, Chapman CA, Chiu CY, Choi K-S, Collins PL, Dietzgen RG, Dolja VV, Dolnik O, Domier LL, Dürrwald R, Dye JM, Easton AJ, Ebihara H, Echevarría JE, Fooks AR, Formenty PBH, Fouchier RAM, Freuling CM, Ghedin E, Goldberg TL, Hewson R, Horie M, Hyndman TH, Jiāng D, Kityo R, Kobinger GP, Kondō H, Koonin EV, Krupovic M, Kurath G, Lamb RA, Lee B, Leroy EM, Maes P, Maisner A, Marston DA, Mor SK, Müller T, Mühlberger E, Ramírez VMN, Netesov SV, Ng TFF, Nowotny N, Palacios G, Patterson JL, Pawęska JT, Payne SL, Prieto K, Rima BK, Rota P, Rubbenstroth D, Schwemmle M, Siddell S, Smither SJ, Song Q, Song T, Stenglein MD, Stone DM, Takada A, Tesh RB, Thomazelli LM, Tomonaga K, Tordo N, Towner JS, Vasilakis N, Vázquez-Morón S, Verdugo C, Volchkov VE, Wahl V, Walker PJ, Wang D, Wang L-F, Wellehan JFX, Wiley MR, Whitfield AE, Wolf YI, Yè G, Zhāng Y-Z, Kuhn JH (2018) Taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales: update 2018. Arch Virol 163:2283–2294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bishop DHL, Pringle CR (1995) Order Mononegavirales. In: Murphy FA, Fauquet CM, Bishop DHL, Ghabrial SA, Jarvis AW, Martelli GP, Mayo MA, Summers MD (eds) Virus taxonomy—sixth report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses/Archives of virology supplement 10. Springer, Vienna, pp 265–267Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Easton AJ, Pringle CR (2011) Order Mononegavirales. In: King AMQ, Adams MJ, Carstens EB, Lefkowitz EJ (eds) Virus taxonomy—ninth report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Elsevier/Academic Press, London, pp 653–657Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fauver JR, Grubaugh ND, Krajacich BJ, Weger-Lucarelli J, Lakin SM, Fakoli LS III, Bolay FK, Diclaro JW II, Dabiré KR, Foy BD, Brackney DE, Ebel GD, Stenglein MD (2016) West African Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes harbor a taxonomically diverse virome including new insect-specific flaviviruses, mononegaviruses, and totiviruses. Virology 498:288–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    King AMQ, Lefkowitz EJ, Mushegian AR, Adams MJ, Dutilh BE, Gorbalenya AE, Harrach B, Harrison RL, Junglen S, Knowles NJ, Kropinski AM, Krupovic M, Kuhn JH, Nibert ML, Rubino L, Sabanadzovic S, Sanfaçon H, Siddell SG, Simmonds P, Varsani A, Zerbini FM, Davison AJ (2018) Changes to taxonomy and the International Code of Virus Classification and Nomenclature ratified by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (2018). Arch Virol 163:2601–2631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Li C-X, Shi M, Tian J-H, Lin X-D, Kang Y-J, Chen L-J, Qin X-C, Xu J, Holmes EC, Zhang Y-Z (2015) Unprecedented genomic diversity of RNA viruses in arthropods reveals the ancestry of negative-sense RNA viruses. Elife 4:e05378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Longdon B, Murray GG, Palmer WJ, Day JP, Parker DJ, Welch JJ, Obbard DJ, Jiggins FM (2015) The evolution, diversity, and host associations of rhabdoviruses. Virus Evol 1:vev014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Marzano S-YL, Domier LL (2016) Novel mycoviruses discovered from metatranscriptomics survey of soybean phyllosphere phytobiomes. Virus Res 213:332–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Marzano S-YL, Nelson BD, Ajayi-Oyetunde O, Bradley CA, Hughes TJ, Hartman GL, Eastburn DM, Domier LL (2016) Identification of diverse mycoviruses through metatranscriptomics characterization of the viromes of five major fungal plant pathogens. J Virol 90:6846–6863CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Pringle CR (1991) Order Mononegavirales. In: Francki RIB, Fauquet CM, Knudson DL, Brown F (eds) Classification and nomenclature of viruses—fifth report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses/Archives of virology supplementum 2. Springer, Vienna, pp 239–241Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Pringle CR, Alexander DJ, Billeter MA, Collins PL, Kingsbury DW, Lipkind MA, Nagai Y, Orvell C, Rima B, Rott R, ter Meulen V (1991) The order Mononegavirales. Arch Virol 117:137–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pringle CR (1997) The order Mononegavirales—current status. Arch Virol 142:2321–2326Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Pringle CR (2000) Order Mononegavirales. In: van Regenmortel MHV, Fauquet CM, Bishop DHL, Carstens EB, Estes MK, Lemon SM, Maniloff J, Mayo MA, McGeoch DJ, Pringle CR, Wickner RB (eds) Virus taxonomy—seventh report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 525–530Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Pringle CR (2005) Order Mononegavirales. In: Fauquet CM, Mayo MA, Maniloff J, Desselberger U, Ball LA (eds) Virus taxonomy—eighth report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Elsevier/Academic Press, San Diego, pp 609–614Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Shi M, Lin X-D, Tian J-H, Chen L-J, Chen X, Li C-X, Qin X-C, Li J, Cao J-P, Eden J-S, Buchmann J, Wang W, Xu J, Holmes EC, Zhang Y-Z (2016) Redefining the invertebrate RNA virosphere. Nature 540:539–543CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© This is a U.S. government work and its text is not subject to copyright protection in the United States; however, its text may be subject to foreign copyright protection 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Zoonotic Infectious Diseases Unit, Rega InstituteKU LeuvenLeuvenBelgium
  2. 2.Department of Pathology and ImmunologyWashington University School of MedicineSt. LouisUSA
  3. 3.Universidad Politécnica de Madrid—Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y AlimentariaMadridSpain
  4. 4.Departamento de Biotecnología-Biología VegetalEscuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería Agronómica, Alimentaria y de Biosistemas, UPMMadridSpain
  5. 5.Center for Microbial Pathogenesis, Institute for Biomedical SciencesGeorgia State UniversityAtlantaUSA
  6. 6.United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious DiseasesFrederickUSA
  7. 7.CSIRO Health and Biosecurity, Australian Animal Health LaboratoryGeelongAustralia
  8. 8.Department of Epidemiology, Center for Infection and Immunity, Mailman School of Public HealthColumbia UniversityNew YorkUSA
  9. 9.VIPAC Unit, Agence Nationale de Sécurité Sanitaire, Laboratoire de Ploufragan-PlouzanéUniversité Bretagne LoirePloufraganFrance
  10. 10.Department of PathologyThe University of Texas Medical BranchGalvestonUSA
  11. 11.Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Institute of Novel and Emerging Infectious DiseasesGreifswald-Insel RiemsGermany
  12. 12.RNA Viruses Section, Laboratory of Infectious DiseasesNational Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of HealthBethesdaUSA
  13. 13.Department of Microbiology and ImmunologyAlbert Einstein College of MedicineBronxUSA
  14. 14.Integrated Research Facility at Fort Detrick (IRF-Frederick), Clinical Monitoring Research Program DirectorateFrederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research sponsored by the National Cancer InstituteFrederickUSA
  15. 15.Department of ViroscienceErasmus MC, University Medical Centre RotterdamRotterdamthe Netherlands
  16. 16.Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food Innovation, The University of QueenslandSt. LuciaAustralia
  17. 17.Institute of VirologyPhilipps University MarburgMarburgGermany
  18. 18.Department of Crop SciencesUniversity of IllinoisUrbanaUSA
  19. 19.Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Institute of VirologyBerlinGermany
  20. 20.Robert Koch InstitutBerlinGermany
  21. 21.Animal Production and Health Laboratory, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Department of Nuclear Sciences and ApplicationsInternational Atomic Energy AgencyViennaAustria
  22. 22.University of Pittsburgh School of MedicinePittsburghUSA
  23. 23.School of Life SciencesUniversity of WarwickCoventryUK
  24. 24.Animal and Plant Health AgencyWeybridgeUK
  25. 25.World Health OrganizationGenevaSwitzerland
  26. 26.Embrapa Cassava and FruitsCruz das AlmasBrazil
  27. 27.Department of Biology, Center for Genomics and Systems BiologyNew York UniversityNew YorkUSA
  28. 28.Department of Microbiology and National Emerging Infectious Diseases LaboratoriesBoston University School of MedicineBostonUSA
  29. 29.Public Health EnglandSalisburyUK
  30. 30.Hakubi Center for Advanced ResearchKyoto UniversityKyotoJapan
  31. 31.Department of Infectious DiseasesSt. Jude Children’s Research HospitalMemphisUSA
  32. 32.College of Veterinary Medicine, School of Veterinary and Life SciencesMurdoch UniversityMurdochAustralia
  33. 33.State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Plant Science and Technology, The Provincial Key Lab of Plant Pathology of Húběi ProvinceHuázhōng Agricultural UniversityWuhanChina
  34. 34.Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Infectious DiseasesUniversité LavalQuebec CityCanada
  35. 35.Institute of Plant Science and Resources, Okayama UniversityKurashikiJapan
  36. 36.US Geological Survey Western Fisheries Research CenterSeattleUSA
  37. 37.US Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection, National Veterinary Services Laboratories, Diagnostic Virology LaboratoryAmesUSA
  38. 38.Department of Molecular BiosciencesNorthwestern UniversityEvanstonUSA
  39. 39.Howard Hughes Medical InstituteNorthwestern UniversityEvanstonUSA
  40. 40.Department of MicrobiologyIcahn School of Medicine at Mount SinaiNew YorkUSA
  41. 41.Centre International de Recherches Médicales de Franceville, Institut de Recherche pour le DéveloppementFrancevilleGabon
  42. 42.Department of Veterinary Biosciences, College of Veterinary MedicineThe Ohio State UniversityColumbusUSA
  43. 43.Department of Biology and Microbiology, Department of Plant SciencesSouth Dakota State UniversityBrookingsUSA
  44. 44.Novosibirsk State UniversityNovosibirskRussia
  45. 45.Institute of VirologyUniversity of Veterinary MedicineViennaAustria
  46. 46.Department of Basic Medical Sciences, College of MedicineMohammed Bin Rashid University of Medicine and Health SciencesDubaiUnited Arab Emirates
  47. 47.National Biosafety LaboratoryNational Public Health CenterBudapestHungary
  48. 48.Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Parasitic Diseases, National Institute for Communicable Diseases of the National Health Laboratory ServiceSandringham-JohannesburgSouth Africa
  49. 49.Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical SciencesTexas A&M UniversityCollege StationUSA
  50. 50.Centre for Experimental Medicine, School of Medicine, Dentistry and Biomedical SciencesThe Queen’s University of BelfastBelfastUK
  51. 51.National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and PreventionAtlantaUSA
  52. 52.Institute of Diagnostic Virology, Friedrich-Loeffler-InstitutGreifswald-Insel RiemsGermany
  53. 53.Nuffield Department of MedicineUniversity of OxfordOxfordUK
  54. 54.CBR DivisionDstlSalisburyUK
  55. 55.Division of Plant Sciences, College of Agriculture, Food and Natural ResourcesUniversity of MissouriColumbiaUSA
  56. 56.Australian Infectious Diseases Research CentreUniversity of QueenslandSt. LuciaAustralia
  57. 57.Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical SciencesColorado State UniversityFort CollinsUSA
  58. 58.Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture ScienceWeymouthUK
  59. 59.Division of Global EpidemiologyHokkaido University Research Center for Zoonosis ControlSapporoJapan
  60. 60.Institute for Frontier Life and Medical Sciences (inFront)Kyoto UniversityKyotoJapan
  61. 61.Institut Pasteur, Unité des Stratégies Antivirales, WHO Collaborative Centre for Viral Haemorrhagic Fevers and Arboviruses, OIE Reference Laboratory for RVFV and CCHFVParisFrance
  62. 62.Institut Pasteur de GuinéeConakryGuinea
  63. 63.Viral Special Pathogens Branch, Division of High-Consequence Pathogens PathologyNational Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and PreventionAtlantaUSA
  64. 64.Department of Pathology and Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious DiseasesThe University of Texas Medical BranchGalvestonUSA
  65. 65.National Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures CenterFrederickUSA
  66. 66.School of Biological SciencesUniversity of QueenslandSt. LuciaAustralia
  67. 67.Department of Molecular MicrobiologyWashington University School of MedicineSt. LouisUSA
  68. 68.Department of PathologyWashington University School of MedicineSt. LouisUSA
  69. 69.Department of ImmunologyWashington University School of MedicineSt. LouisUSA
  70. 70.Programme in Emerging Infectious Diseases, Duke-NUS Medical SchoolSingaporeSingapore
  71. 71.Department of Entomology and Plant PathologyNorth Carolina State UniversityRaleighUSA
  72. 72.State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology and Ministry of Agriculture Key Lab of Molecular Biology of Crop Pathogens and Insects, Institute of Insect SciencesZhejiang UniversityHangzhouChina
  73. 73.Departamento de Fitopatologia, Instituto de Biotecnologia Aplicada à Agropecuária, Universidade Federal de ViçosaViçosaBrazil
  74. 74.National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and PreventionBeijingChina
  75. 75.Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center & Institutes of Biomedical SciencesFudan UniversityShanghaiChina
  76. 76.Division of Clinical Research (DCR)Integrated Research Facility at Fort Detrick (IRF-Frederick), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institutes of Health (NIH)FrederickUSA

Personalised recommendations