Evidence of infection with avian, human, and swine influenza viruses in pigs in Cairo, Egypt
The majority of the Egyptian swine population was culled in the aftermath of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, but small-scale growing remains. We sampled pigs from piggeries and an abattoir in Cairo. We found virological evidence of infection with avian H9N2 and H5N1 viruses as well as human pandemic H1N1 influenza virus. Serological evidence suggested previous exposure to avian H5N1 and H9N2, human pandemic H1N1, and swine avian-like and human-like viruses. This raises concern about potential reassortment of influenza viruses in pigs and highlights the need for better control and prevention of influenza virus infection in pigs.
This work was funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, under contract number HHSN272201400006C, and supported by the American Lebanese Syrian Associated Charities (ALSAC).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
This study was funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, under contract number HHSN272201400006C, and supported by the American Lebanese Syrian Associated Charities (ALSAC).
All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care of animals were followed. This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors.
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