Archives of Virology

, Volume 162, Issue 11, pp 3389–3396 | Cite as

Detection of waterborne norovirus genogroup I strains using an improved real time RT-PCR assay

  • Han-Gil Cho
  • Sung-Geun Lee
  • Su-Kyoung Mun
  • Myung-Jin Lee
  • Po-Hyun Park
  • Weon-Hwa Jheong
  • Mi-Hye Yoon
  • Soon-Yong PaikEmail author
Original Article


Noroviruses (NoVs) are the major global source of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) outbreaks. To detect NoVs, real-time reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) assays have been widely employed since the first decade of the 21st century. We developed a redesigned probe, JJV1PM, for RT-qPCR assay detection of NoV genogroup (G) I strains. The new RT-qPCR assay using the JJV1PM-probe showed broader strain reactivity for 10 NoV GI genotypes, while the old method, using the JJV1PT-probe assay, detected only 7 NoV GI genotypes in a validation panel using human fecal specimens. The improved RT-qPCR assay was also successfully applied to water samples. The JJV1PM-probe assay identified 7 NoV GI genotypes, whereas the JJV1PT-probe assay detected only 2 NoV GI genotypes from water samples. Notably, groundwater-borne NoV GI strains detected by the improved JJV1PM-probe assay were associated with groundwater-borne AGE outbreaks in South Korea. The results of this study underscore the importance of the evaluation of RT-qPCR assays using recently circulating NoV strains prior to field application.





Acute Gastroenteritis


Real-Time Reverse Transcription-Quantitative PCR


Open Reading Frames



This research was supported by a Grant of the Korea Health Technology R&D Project through the Korea Health Industry Development Institute (KHIDI), funded by the Ministry of Health & Welfare, Republic of Korea (Grant numbers: HI15C1781).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Han-Gil Cho
    • 1
  • Sung-Geun Lee
    • 2
  • Su-Kyoung Mun
    • 1
  • Myung-Jin Lee
    • 1
  • Po-Hyun Park
    • 1
  • Weon-Hwa Jheong
    • 3
  • Mi-Hye Yoon
    • 1
  • Soon-Yong Paik
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Division of Public Health ResearchGyeonggi Province Institute of Health and EnvironmentSuwonRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Korea Zoonosis Research InstituteChonbuk National UniversityIksanRepublic of Korea
  3. 3.Environmental Infrastructure Research DepartmentNational Institute of Environmental ResearchIncheonRepublic of Korea
  4. 4.Department of Microbiology, College of MedicineThe Catholic University of KoreaSeoulRepublic of Korea

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