Detection of waterborne norovirus genogroup I strains using an improved real time RT-PCR assay
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Noroviruses (NoVs) are the major global source of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) outbreaks. To detect NoVs, real-time reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) assays have been widely employed since the first decade of the 21st century. We developed a redesigned probe, JJV1PM, for RT-qPCR assay detection of NoV genogroup (G) I strains. The new RT-qPCR assay using the JJV1PM-probe showed broader strain reactivity for 10 NoV GI genotypes, while the old method, using the JJV1PT-probe assay, detected only 7 NoV GI genotypes in a validation panel using human fecal specimens. The improved RT-qPCR assay was also successfully applied to water samples. The JJV1PM-probe assay identified 7 NoV GI genotypes, whereas the JJV1PT-probe assay detected only 2 NoV GI genotypes from water samples. Notably, groundwater-borne NoV GI strains detected by the improved JJV1PM-probe assay were associated with groundwater-borne AGE outbreaks in South Korea. The results of this study underscore the importance of the evaluation of RT-qPCR assays using recently circulating NoV strains prior to field application.
Real-Time Reverse Transcription-Quantitative PCR
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This research was supported by a Grant of the Korea Health Technology R&D Project through the Korea Health Industry Development Institute (KHIDI), funded by the Ministry of Health & Welfare, Republic of Korea (Grant numbers: HI15C1781).
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Conflict of interest
The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors.
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