Archives of Virology

, Volume 162, Issue 8, pp 2493–2504 | Cite as

Taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales: update 2017

  • Gaya K. Amarasinghe
  • Yīmíng Bào
  • Christopher F. Basler
  • Sina Bavari
  • Martin Beer
  • Nicolás Bejerman
  • Kim R. Blasdell
  • Alisa Bochnowski
  • Thomas Briese
  • Alexander Bukreyev
  • Charles H. Calisher
  • Kartik Chandran
  • Peter L. Collins
  • Ralf G. Dietzgen
  • Olga Dolnik
  • Ralf Dürrwald
  • John M. Dye
  • Andrew J. Easton
  • Hideki Ebihara
  • Qi Fang
  • Pierre Formenty
  • Ron A. M. Fouchier
  • Elodie Ghedin
  • Robert M. Harding
  • Roger Hewson
  • Colleen M. Higgins
  • Jian Hong
  • Masayuki Horie
  • Anthony P. James
  • Dàohóng Jiāng
  • Gary P. Kobinger
  • Hideki Kondo
  • Gael Kurath
  • Robert A. Lamb
  • Benhur Lee
  • Eric M. Leroy
  • Ming Li
  • Andrea Maisner
  • Elke Mühlberger
  • Sergey V. Netesov
  • Norbert Nowotny
  • Jean L. Patterson
  • Susan L. Payne
  • Janusz T. Paweska
  • Michael N. Pearson
  • Rick E. Randall
  • Peter A. Revill
  • Bertus K. Rima
  • Paul Rota
  • Dennis Rubbenstroth
  • Martin Schwemmle
  • Sophie J. Smither
  • Qisheng Song
  • David M. Stone
  • Ayato Takada
  • Calogero Terregino
  • Robert B. Tesh
  • Keizo Tomonaga
  • Noël Tordo
  • Jonathan S. Towner
  • Nikos Vasilakis
  • Viktor E. Volchkov
  • Victoria Wahl-Jensen
  • Peter J. Walker
  • Beibei Wang
  • David Wang
  • Fei Wang
  • Lin-Fa Wang
  • John H. Werren
  • Anna E. Whitfield
  • Zhichao Yan
  • Gongyin Ye
  • Jens H. KuhnEmail author
Virology Division News


In 2017, the order Mononegavirales was expanded by the inclusion of a total of 69 novel species. Five new rhabdovirus genera and one new nyamivirus genus were established to harbor 41 of these species, whereas the remaining new species were assigned to already established genera. Furthermore, non-Latinized binomial species names replaced all paramyxovirus and pneumovirus species names, thereby accomplishing application of binomial species names throughout the entire order. This article presents the updated taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales as now accepted by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV).


Newcastle Disease Virus Newcastle Disease Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus Mumps Virus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


The virus order Mononegavirales was established in 1991 to accommodate related viruses with nonsegmented, linear, single-stranded negative-sense RNA genomes. These viruses were initially assigned to three mononegavirus families: Filoviridae, Paramyxoviridae, and Rhabdoviridae [32, 33]. The families Bornaviridae and Nyamiviridae joined the order in 1996 [34] and 2014 [1, 25], respectively, followed by the families Mymonaviridae, Pneumoviridae, and Sunviridae in 2016 [2]. The order was continuously amended in 1995 [7], 1997 [35], 2000 [36], 2005 [37], 2011 [17], and 2016 [2]. In 2016, the Study Groups of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) responsible for the taxonomy of the order and its eight families assigned unclassified mononegaviruses to existing or novel taxa and continued efforts to streamline order nomenclature. Here we present the changes that were (re)proposed via official ICTV taxonomic proposals (TaxoProps) at in 2016 and that were accepted by the ICTV Executive Committee. These changes are official ICTV taxonomy as of 2017.

Taxonomic changes at the order level

No changes were made at the order level.

Taxonomic changes at the family level


The family Bornaviridae remains monogeneric but was expanded in 2017 by one species (Mammalian 2 bornavirus) for the newly discovered variegated squirrel bornavirus 1 [23] (TaxoProp 2016.013aM.A.v1.Bornavirus_sp).


No changes were made to this family.


No changes were made to this family.


The family Nyamiviridae was expanded to include a third genus (Peropuvirus) including the new species Pteromalus puparum peropuvirus for a virus recently discovered in parasitoid wasps, Pteromalus puparum negative-strand RNA virus 1 [45] (TaxoProp 2016.015a-dM.A.v1.Peropuvirus).


The non-Latinized binomial species name format [40] was applied throughout the family Paramyxoviridae (TaxoProp 2016.011aM.A.v2.Paramyxoviridae_spren). In addition, the genus Avulavirus was expanded by one novel species, Avian avulavirus 13, for avian paramyxovirus 13 discovered in geese [19, 24, 47] (TaxoProp 2016.001a,bM.A.v2.Avulavirus_spren). The genus Rubulavirus was expanded by 10 species to accommodate two long-known viruses (e.g., Menangle virus, Tioman virus) and eight newly discovered bat viruses (bat mumps virus, Achimota viruses 1 and 2, Sosuga virus, Teviot virus, Tuhoko viruses 1–3) [3, 5, 11, 12, 16, 26] (TaxoProp 2015.016aM.A.v3.Rubulavirus_10sp). Finally, the previous species name Newcastle disease virus was changed to Avian avulavirus 1 to reflect the fact that “Newcastle disease virus” is but one strain of the member virus of this species, avian paramyxovirus 1 (APMV-1) [46] (TaxoProp 2016.001a,bM.A.v2.Avulavirus_spren).


The non-Latinized binomial species name format [40] was applied throughout the family Pneumoviridae (TaxoProp 2016.012aM.A.v1.Pneumoviridae_spren).


The most extensive changes were introduced into the family Rhabdoviridae. The new genus Almendravirus was created to include five new species (TaxoProp 2016.002a-dM.A.v3.Almendravirus) to accommodate mosquito viruses discovered from 2009–2013 (Arboretum virus, Balsa virus, Coot Bay virus, Puerto Almendras virus, and Rio Chico virus) [13, 43, 44]. The new genus Curiovirus, including four new species, was created for unclassified dipteran viruses known since the 1970s–80s (Curionopolis virus, Iriri virus, Itacaiunas virus, Rochambeau virus) (TaxoProp 2016.003a-dM.A.v3.Curiovirus) [14, 15, 44]. Twelve mostly dipteran viruses (Hart Park virus, Gray Lodge virus, Joinjakaka virus, Kamese virus, La Joya virus, Landjia virus, Manitoba virus, Marco virus, Mosqueiro virus, Mossuril virus, Ord River virus, and Parry Creek virus), isolated in the 1950s to late 1970s, were classified into twelve new species in the new genus Hapavirus. The previously free-floating rhabdovirus species Flanders virus, Ngaingan virus, and Wongabel virus were moved into the genus Hapavirus and renamed accordingly (Flanders hapavirus, Ngaingan hapavirus, and Wongabel hapavirus, respectively) [4, 21, 44] (TaxoProp 2016.005a-gM.A.v4.Hapavirus). The largest newly created rhabdovirus genus is Ledantevirus. This genus includes 14 new species for Barur virus, Fikirini virus, Fukuoka virus, Kern Canyon virus, Keuraliba virus, Kolente virus, Kumasi rhabdovirus, Le Dantec virus, Mount Elgon bat virus, Nkolbisson virus, Nishimuro virus, Oita virus, Wǔhàn louse fly virus 5, and Yǒngjiā tick virus 2, which were isolated from or detected in arthropods and/or mammals [6, 10, 18, 28, 38, 44] (TaxoProp 2016.006a-dM.A.v2.Ledantevirus). Finally, the novel genus Sripuvirus was created to include five new species for sandfly and lizard viruses (Almpiwar virus, Chaco virus, Niakha virus, Sena Madureira virus, and Sripur virus) [29, 41, 44] (TaxoProp 2016.007a-dM.A.v5.Sripuvirus).

The existing genus Cytorhabdovirus was expanded by inclusion of the novel species Colocasia bobone disease-associated cytorhabdovirus for a plant virus first described in 1973 in the taro plant (Colocasia esculenta)] [22] (TaxoProp 2016.017aM.A.v1.Cytorhabdovirus_sp). The genus Ephemerovirus was enlarged by three species to accommodate the long-known bovid viruses Kimberley and Koolpinyah, and the mosquito-borne Malakal and Yata viruses [8, 9] (TaxoProp 2016.004aM.A.v2.Ephemerovirus_3sp). The recently described, possibly human, Bas-Congo virus and Ekpoma viruses 1 and 2, and the biting midge-borne Sweetwater Branch virus were classified into four new species of the genus Tibrovirus [20, 27, 39, 44] (TaxoProp 2016.008aM.A.v3.Tibrovirus_4sp). Klamath virus, discovered in 1962 in a vole, was assigned to a novel species in the genus Tupavirus [44] (TaxoProp 2016.009aM.A.v2.Tupavirus_sp), and seven new species were added to the genus Vesiculovirus for American bat vesiculovirus (isolated from bats in 2008) and Jurona virus, Malpais Spring virus, Morreton virus, Perinet virus, Radi virus, and Yug Bogdanovac virus (isolated from mosquitoes or sandflies in 1962–1986) [22, 30, 31, 42, 44] (TaxoProp 016.010aM.A.v3.Vesiculovirus_7sp).

Finally, the existing species names Oncorhynchus 1 novirhabdovirus (formerly Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus) and Oncorhynchus 2 novirhabdovirus (formerly Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus) were changed to Salmonid novirhabdovirus and Piscine novirhabdovirus, respectively, to be more reflective of the host spectrum of their members. (2016.018aM.A.v1.Novirhabdovirus_spren).


In 2017, no changes were made to this family.


A summary of the current, ICTV-accepted taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales is presented in Table 1.
Table 1

ICTV-accepted taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales as of 2017



Virus (Abbreviation)

Family Bornaviridae


Elapid 1 bornavirus

Loveridge’s garter snake virus 1 (LGSV-1)


Mammalian 1 bornavirus*

Borna disease virus 1 (BoDV-1)


Borna disease virus 2 (BoDV-2)


Mammalian 2 bornavirus

variegated squirrel bornavirus 1 (VSBV-1)


Passeriform 1 bornavirus

canary bornavirus 1 (CnBV-1)


canary bornavirus 2 (CnBV-2)


canary bornavirus 3 (CnBV-3)


Passeriform 2 bornavirus

estrildid finch bornavirus 1 (EsBV-1)


Psittaciform 1 bornavirus

parrot bornavirus 1 (PaBV-1)


parrot bornavirus 2 (PaBV-2)


parrot bornavirus 3 (PaBV-3)


parrot bornavirus 4 (PaBV-4)


parrot bornavirus 7 (PaBV-7)


Psittaciform 2 bornavirus

parrot bornavirus 5 (PaBV-5)


Waterbird 1 bornavirus

aquatic bird bornavirus 1 (ABBV-1)


aquatic bird bornavirus 2 (ABBV-2)

Family Filoviridae


Lloviu cuevavirus*

Lloviu virus (LLOV)


Bundibugyo ebolavirus

Bundibugyo virus (BDBV)


Reston ebolavirus

Reston virus (RESTV)


Sudan ebolavirus

Sudan virus (SUDV)


Taï Forest ebolavirus

Taï Forest virus (TAFV)


Zaire ebolavirus*

Ebola virus (EBOV)


Marburg marburgvirus*

Marburg virus (MARV)


Ravn virus (RAVV)

Family Mymonaviridae


Sclerotinia sclerotimonavirus*

Sclerotinia sclerotiorum negative-stranded RNA virus 1 (SsNSRV-1)

Family Nyamiviridae


Midway nyavirus

Midway virus (MIDWV)


Nyamanini nyavirus*

Nyamanini virus (NYMV)


Sierra Nevada nyavirus

Sierra Nevada virus (SNVV)


Pteromalus puparum peropuvirus*

Pteromalus puparum negative-strand RNA virus 1 (PpNSRV-1)


Soybean cyst nematode socyvirus*

soybean cyst nematode virus 1 (SbCNV-1)

Family Paramyxoviridae


Salmon aquaparamyxovirus*

Atlantic salmon paramyxovirus (AsaPV)


Avian avulavirus 1*

avian paramyxovirus 1 (APMV-1)1


Avian avulavirus 2

avian paramyxovirus 2 (APMV-2)


Avian avulavirus 3

avian paramyxovirus 3 (APMV-3)


Avian avulavirus 4

avian paramyxovirus 4 (APMV-4)


Avian avulavirus 5

avian paramyxovirus 5 (APMV-5)


Avian avulavirus 6

avian paramyxovirus 6 (APMV-6)


Avian avulavirus 7

avian paramyxovirus 7 (APMV-7)


Avian avulavirus 8

avian paramyxovirus 8 (APMV-8)


Avian avulavirus 9

avian paramyxovirus 9 (APMV-9)


Avian avulavirus 10

avian paramyxovirus 10 (APMV-10)


Avian avulavirus 11

avian paramyxovirus 11 (APMV-11)


Avian avulavirus 12

avian paramyxovirus 12 (APMV-12)


Avian avulavirus 13

avian paramyxovirus 13 (APMV-13)


Reptilian ferlavirus*

Fer-de-Lance virus (FDLV)2


Cedar henipavirus

Cedar virus (CedV)


Ghanaian bat henipavirus

Kumasi virus (KV)3


Hendra henipavirus*

Hendra virus (HeV)


Mojiang henipavirus

Mòjiāng virus (MojV)


Nipah henipavirus

Nipah virus (NiV)


Canine morbillivirus

canine distemper virus (CDV)


Cetacean morbillivirus

cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV)


Feline morbillivirus

feline morbillivirus (FeMV)


Measles morbillivirus*

measles virus (MeV)


Small ruminant morbillivirus

peste-des-petits-ruminants virus (PPRV)


Phocine morbillivirus

phocine distemper virus (PDV)


Rinderpest morbillivirus

rinderpest virus (RPV)


Bovine respirovirus 3

bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3)


Human respirovirus 1

human parainfluenza virus 1 (HPIV-1)


Human respirovirus 3

human parainfluenza virus 3 (HPIV-3)


Porcine respirovirus 1

porcine parainfluenza virus 1 (PPIV-1)


Murine respirovirus*

Sendai virus (SeV)4


Achimota rubulavirus 1

Achimota virus 1 (AchPV-1)


Achimota rubulavirus 2

Achimota virus 2 (AchPV-2)


Bat mumps rubulavirus

bat mumps virus (BMV)5


Canine rubulavirus

parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV-5)6


Human rubulavirus 2

human parainfluenza virus 2 (HPIV-2)


Human rubulavirus 4

human parainfluenza virus 4a (HPIV-4a)


human parainfluenza virus 4b (HPIV-4b)


Mapuera rubulavirus

Mapuera virus (MapV)


Menangle rubulavirus

Menangle virus (MenPV)


Mumps rubulavirus*

mumps virus (MuV)


Porcine rubulavirus

La Piedad Michoacán Mexico virus (LPMV)7


Simian rubulavirus

simian virus 41 (SV-41)


Sosuga rubulavirus

Sosuga virus


Teviot rubulavirus

Teviot virus (TevPV)


Tioman rubulavirus

Tioman virus (TioPV)


Tuhoko rubulavirus 1

Tuhoko virus 1 (ThkPV-1)


Tuhoko rubulavirus 2

Tuhoko virus 2 (ThkPV-2)


Tuhoko rubulavirus 3

Tuhoko virus 3 (ThkPV-3)

Family Pneumoviridae


Avian metapneumovirus*

avian metapneumovirus (AMPV)8


Human metapneumovirus

human metapneumovirus (HMPV)


Bovine orthopneumovirus

bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV)


Human orthopneumovirus*

human respiratory syncytial virus A2 (HRSV-A2)


human respiratory syncytial virus B1 (HRSV-B1)


Murine orthopneumovirus

murine pneumonia virus (MPV)

Family Rhabdoviridae


Arboretum almendravirus

Arboretum virus (ABTV)


Balsa almendravirus

Balsa virus (BALV)


Coot Bay almendravirus

Coot Bay virus (CBV)


Puerto Almendras almendravirus*

Puerto Almendras virus (PTAMV)


Rio Chico almendravirus

Rio Chico virus (RCHV)


Curionopolis curiovirus*

Curionopolis virus (CURV)


Iriri curiovirus

Iriri virus (IRIRV)


Itacaiunas curiovirus

Itacaiunas virus (ITAV)


Rochambeau curiovirus

Rochambeau virus (RBUV)


Alfalfa dwarf cytorhabdovirus

alfalfa dwarf virus (ADV)


Barley yellow striate mosaic cytorhabdovirus

barley yellow striate mosaic virus (BYSMV)


Broccoli necrotic yellows cytorhabdovirus

broccoli necrotic yellows virus (BNYV)


Colocasia bobone disease-associated cytorhabdovirus

Colocasia bobone disease-associated virus (CBDaV)


Festuca leaf streak cytorhabdovirus

festuca leaf streak virus (FLSV)


Lettuce necrotic yellows cytorhabdovirus*

lettuce necrotic yellows virus (LNYV)


Lettuce yellow mottle cytorhabdovirus

lettuce yellow mottle virus (LYMoV)


Northern cereal mosaic cytorhabdovirus

northern cereal mosaic virus (NCMV)


Sonchus cytorhabdovirus 1

sonchus virus (SonV)


Strawberry crinkle cytorhabdovirus

strawberry crinkle virus (SCV)


Wheat American striate mosaic cytorhabdovirus

wheat American striate mosaic virus (WASMV)


Coffee ringspot dichorhavirus

coffee ringspot virus (CoRSV)


Orchid fleck dichorhavirus*

orchid fleck virus (OFV)9


Adelaide River ephemerovirus

Adelaide River virus (ARV)


Berrimah ephemerovirus

Berrimah virus (BRMV)


Bovine fever ephemerovirus*

bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV)10


Kimberley ephemerovirus

Kimberley virus (KIMV)


Malakal virus (MALV)


Koolpinyah ephemerovirus

Koolpinyah virus (KOOLV)


Kotonkan ephemerovirus

kotonkan virus (KOTV)


Obodhiang ephemerovirus

Obodhiang virus (OBOV)


Yata ephemerovirus

Yata virus (YATV)


Flanders hapavirus

Flanders virus (FLAV)


Hart Park hapavirus

Hart Park virus (HPV)


Gray Lodge hapavirus

Gray Lodge virus (GLOV)


Joinjakaka hapavirus

Joinjakaka virus (JOIV)


La Joya hapavirus

La Joya virus (LJV)


Kamese hapavirus

Kamese virus (KAMV)


Landjia hapavirus

Landjia virus (LANV = LJAV)


Manitoba hapavirus

Manitoba virus (MANV = MNTBV)


Marco hapavirus

Marco virus (MCOV)


Mosqueiro hapavirus

Mosqueiro virus (MQOV)


Mossuril hapavirus

Mossuril virus (MOSV)


Ngaingan hapavirus

Ngaingan virus (NGAV)


Ord River hapavirus

Ord River virus (ORV)


Parry Creek hapavirus

Parry Creek virus (PCV)


Wongabel hapavirus*

Wongabel virus (WONV)


Barur ledantevirus

Barur virus (BARV)


Fikirini ledantevirus

Fikirini virus (FKRV)


Fukuoka ledantevirus

Fukuoka virus (FUKV)


Kern Canyon ledantevirus

Kern Canyon virus (KCV)


Keuraliba ledantevirus

Keuraliba virus (KEUV)


Kolente ledantevirus

Kolente virus (KOLEV)


Kumasi ledantevirus

Kumasi rhabdovirus (KRV)


Le Dantec ledantevirus*

Le Dantec virus (LDV)


Mount Elgon bat ledantevirus

Mount Elgon bat virus (MEBV)


Nkolbisson ledantevirus

Nkolbisson virus (NKOV)


Nishimuro ledantevirus

Nishimuro virus (NISV)11


Oita ledantevirus

Oita virus (OITAV)


Wuhan ledantevirus

Wǔhàn louse fly virus 5 (WLFV-5)


Yongjia ledantevirus

Yǒngjiā tick virus 2 (YTV-2)


Aravan lyssavirus

Aravan virus (ARAV)


Australian bat lyssavirus

Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV)


Bokeloh bat lyssavirus

Bokeloh bat lyssavirus (BBLV)


Duvenhage lyssavirus

Duvenhage virus (DUVV)


European bat 1 lyssavirus

European bat lyssavirus 1 (EBLV-1)


European bat 2 lyssavirus

European bat lyssavirus 2 (EBLV-2)


Ikoma lyssavirus

Ikoma lyssavirus (IKOV)


Irkut lyssavirus

Irkut virus (IRKV)


Khujand lyssavirus

Khujand virus (KHUV)


Lagos bat lyssavirus

Lagos bat virus (LBV)


Mokola lyssavirus

Mokola virus (MOKV)


Rabies lyssavirus*

rabies virus (RABV)


Shimoni bat lyssavirus

Shimoni bat virus (SHIBV)


West Caucasian bat lyssavirus

West Caucasian bat virus (WCBV)


Hirame novirhabdovirus

Hirame rhabdovirus (HIRV)


Piscine novirhabdovirus

viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV)12


Salmonid novirhabdovirus*

infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV)


Snakehead novirhabdovirus

snakehead rhabdovirus (SHRV)


Datura yellow vein nucleorhabdovirus

datura yellow vein virus (DYVV)


Eggplant mottled dwarf nucleorhabdovirus

eggplant mottled dwarf virus (EMDV)


Maize fine streak nucleorhabdovirus

maize fine streak virus (MSFV)


Maize Iranian mosaic nucleorhabdovirus

maize Iranian mosaic virus (MIMV)


Maize mosaic nucleorhabdovirus

maize mosaic virus (MMV)


Potato yellow dwarf nucleorhabdovirus*

potato yellow dwarf virus (PYDV)


Rice yellow stunt nucleorhabdovirus

rice yellow stunt virus (RYSV)


rice transitory yellowing virus (RTYV)


Sonchus yellow net nucleorhabdovirus

sonchus yellow net virus (SYNV)


Sowthistle yellow vein nucleorhabdovirus

sowthistle yellow vein virus (SYVV)


Taro vein chlorosis nucleorhabdovirus

taro vein chlorosis virus (TaVCV)


Anguillid perhabdovirus

eel virus European X (EVEX)


Perch perhabdovirus*

perch rhabdovirus (PRV)


Sea trout perhabdovirus

lake trout rhabdovirus (LTRV)


Drosophila affinis sigmavirus

Drosophila affinis sigmavirus (DAffSV)


Drosophila ananassae sigmavirus

Drosophila ananassae sigmavirus (DAnaSV)


Drosophila immigrans sigmavirus

Drosophila immigrans sigmavirus (DImmSV)


Drosophila melanogaster sigmavirus*

Drosophila melanogaster sigmavirus (DMelSV)


Drosophila obscura sigmavirus

Drosophila obscura sigmavirus (DObsSV)


Drosophila tristis sigmavirus

Drosophila tristis sigmavirus (DTriSV)


Muscina stabulans sigmavirus

Muscina stabulans sigmavirus (MStaSV)


Carp sprivivirus*

spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV)


Pike fry sprivivirus

grass carp rhabdovirus (GrCRV)


pike fry rhabdovirus (PFRV)


tench rhabdovirus (TenRV)


Almpiwar sripuvirus

Almpiwar virus (ALMV)


Chaco sripuvirus

Chaco virus (CHOV)


Niakha sripuvirus*

Niakha virus (NIAV)


Sena Madueira sripuvirus

Sena Madueira virus (SMV)


Sripur sripuvirus

Sripur virus (SRIV)


Bas-Congo tibrovirus

Bas-Congo virus (BASV)


Coastal Plains tibrovirus

Coastal Plains virus (CPV)


Ekpoma 1 tibrovirus

Ekpoma virus 1 (EKV-1)


Ekpoma 2 tibrovirus

Ekpoma virus 2 (EKV-2)


Sweetwater Branch tibrovirus

Sweetwater Branch virus (SWBV)


Tibrogargan tibrovirus*

Bivens Arm virus (BAV)


Tibrogargan virus (TIBV)


Durham tupavirus*

Durham virus (DURV)


Klamath tupavirus

Klamath virus (KLAV)


Tupaia tupavirus

tupaia virus (TUPV)


Lettuce big-vein associated varicosavirus*

lettuce big-vein associated virus (LBVaV)13


Alagoas vesiculovirus

vesicular stomatitis Alagoas virus (VSAV)


American bat vesiculovirus

American bat vesiculovirus (ABVV)


Carajas vesiculovirus

Carajás virus (CJSV)


Chandipura vesiculovirus

Chandipura virus (CHPV)


Cocal vesiculovirus

Cocal virus (COCV)


Indiana vesiculovirus*

vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus (VSIV)


Isfahan vesiculovirus

Isfahan virus (ISFV)


Jurona vesiculovirus

Jurona virus (JURV)


Malpais Spring vesiculovirus

Malpais Spring virus (MSPV)


Maraba vesiculovirus

Maraba virus (MARAV)


Morreton vesiculovirus

Morreton virus (MORV)


New Jersey vesiculovirus

vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus (VSNJV)


Perinet vesiculovirus

Perinet virus (PERV)


Piry vesiculovirus

Piry virus (PIRYV)


Radi vesiculovirus

Radi virus (RADV)


Yug Bogdanovac vesiculovirus

Yug Bogdanovac virus (YBV)


Moussa virus

Moussa virus (MOUV)

Family Sunviridae


Reptile sunshinevirus 1*

Sunshine Coast virus (SunCV)



Xincheng anphevirus*

Xīnchéng mosquito virus (XcMV)


Lishi arlivirus*

Líshí spider virus 2 (LsSV-2)


Tacheng chengtivirus*

Tǎchéng tick virus 6 (TcTV-6)


Wenzhou crustavirus*

Wēnzhōu crab virus 1 (WzCV-1)


Sanxia wastrivirus*

Sānxiá water strider virus 4 (SxWSV-4)

* Asterisks denote type species.  Please note that viruses are real objects that are assigned to concepts that are called taxa. Species, genera, families, and orders are taxa. The taxonomic changes listed here pertain to taxon name changes and do not affect virus names. Taxon names are always italicized and always begin with a capital letter. Virus names, on the other hand, are not italicized and are not capitalized, except if the name or a name component is a proper noun. For educational purposes, this column lists the virus names with their correct (lack of) capitalization

1Includes: Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and pigeon paramyxovirus 1 (PPMV-1); 2 synonym: anaconda paramyxovirus; 3 synonym: GH-M74a virus; 4 synonym: murine parainfluenza virus 1; 5 synonym: bat paramyxovirus; 6 synonym: simian virus 5; 7 synonym: porcine rubulavirus; 8 synonyms: avian pneumovirus, turkey rhinotracheitis virus; 9 synonyms: citrus leprosis virus nuclear type, citrus necrotic spot virus; 10 synonym: Tzipori virus; 11 synonym: wild boar rhabdovirus 1 (WBRV1); 12 synonyms: Egtved virus, Paralichthys olivaceus rhabdovirus; 13 synonym: tobacco stunt virus



We thank Laura Bollinger (NIH/NIAID Integrated Research Facility at Fort Detrick, Frederick, MD, USA) for critically editing the manuscript.

Members of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Bornaviridae Study Group who coauthored this manuscript: Ralf Dürrwald, Masayuki Horie, Jens H. Kuhn, Norbert Nowotny, Susan L. Payne, Dennis Rubbenstroth, Thomas Briese, Martin Schwemmle, Keizo Tomonaga.

Members of the ICTV Filoviridae Study Group who coauthored this manuscript: Gaya K. Amarasinghe, Christopher F. Basler, Alexander Bukreyev, Kartik Chandran, Olga Dolnik, John M. Dye, Hideki Ebihara, Pierre Formenty, Roger Hewson, Gary P. Kobinger, Jens H. Kuhn, Eric M. Leroy, Elke Mühlberger, Sergey V. Netesov, Jean L. Patterson, Janusz T. Paweska, Sophie J. Smither, Ayato Takada, Jonathan S. Towner, Viktor E. Volchkov, Victoria Wahl-Jensen.

Members of the ICTV Mononegavirales Study Group who coauthored this manuscript: Ralf G. Dietzgen, Jens H. Kuhn, Gael Kurath, Bertus K. Rima, Norbert Nowotny, Andrew J. Easton, Dennis Rubbenstroth, Nikos Vasilakis, Peter J. Walker.

Members of the ICTV Nyamiviridae Study Group who coauthored this manuscript: Ralf G. Dietzgen, Elodie Ghedin, Dàohóng Jiāng, Jens H. Kuhn, Nikos Vasilakis, David Wang.

Members of the ICTV Paramyxoviridae Study Group who coauthored this manuscript: Peter L. Collins, Andrew J. Easton, Ron A. M. Fouchier, Gael Kurath, Robert A. Lamb, Andrea Maisner, Bertus K. Rima, Paul Rota, Benhur Lee, Ming Li, Lin-Fa Wang.

Members of the ICTV Rhabdoviridae Study Group who coauthored this manuscript: Kim R. Blasdell, Charles H. Calisher, Ralf G. Dietzgen, Hideki Kondo, Gael Kurath, David M. Stone, Robert B. Tesh, Noël Tordo, Nikos Vasilakis, Peter J. Walker, Anna E. Whitfield.

Compliance with ethical standards

The views and conclusions contained in this document are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as necessarily representing the official policies, either expressed or implied, of the US Department of the Army, the US Department of Defense, the US Department of Health and Human Services, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Science and Technology Directorate (S&T) or of the institutions and companies affiliated with the authors. In no event shall any of these entities have any responsibility or liability for any use, misuse, inability to use, or reliance upon the information contained herein. The US departments do not endorse any products or commercial services mentioned in this publication.


This work was supported in part through Battelle Memorial Institute’s prime contract with the US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) under Contract No. HHSN272200700016I. An employee of Battelle Memorial Institute is: A. Bochnowski. A subcontractor to Battelle Memorial Institute who performed this work is: J.H.K., an employee of Tunnell Government Services, Inc. This work was also funded in part under Contract No. HSHQDC-15-C-00064 awarded by DHS S&T for the management and operation of the National Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures Center (NBACC), a Federally Funded Research and Development Center (V.W.-J.); and National Institutes of Health (NIH) contract HHSN272201000040I/HHSN27200004/D04 and Grant R24AI120942 (N.V., R.B.T.). Y.B. was supported by the Intramural Research Program of the NIH, National Library of Medicine.

Conflict of interest

The authors have no conflicts of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pathology and ImmunologyWashington University School of MedicineSt. LouisUSA
  2. 2.Information Engineering BranchNational Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of HealthBethesdaUSA
  3. 3.Center for Microbial PathogenesisInstitute for Biomedical Sciences, Georgia State UniversityAtlantaUSA
  4. 4.United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort DetrickFrederickUSA
  5. 5.Institute of Diagnostic VirologyFriedrich-Loeffler-InstitutGreifswald-Insel RiemsGermany
  6. 6.Instituto de Patología VegetalCentro de Investigaciones Agropecuarias, Instituto Nacional de Tecnología AgropecuariaCórdobaArgentina
  7. 7.Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y TécnicasBuenos AiresArgentina
  8. 8.CSIRO Health and BiosecurityAustralian Animal Health LaboratoryGeelongAustralia
  9. 9.Integrated Research Facility at Fort Detrick (IRF-Frederick)Division of Clinical Research (DCR), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institutes of Health (NIH)FrederickUSA
  10. 10.Center for Infection and ImmunityMailman School of Public Health, Columbia UniversityNew YorkUSA
  11. 11.Department of PathologyThe University of Texas Medical BranchGalvestonUSA
  12. 12.Arthropod-Borne and Infectious Diseases LaboratoryCollege of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State UniversityFort CollinsUSA
  13. 13.Department of Microbiology and ImmunologyAlbert Einstein College of MedicineNew YorkUSA
  14. 14.Respiratory Viruses SectionLaboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of HealthBethesdaUSA
  15. 15.Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food InnovationThe University of QueenslandSt. LuciaAustralia
  16. 16.Institute of VirologyPhilipps University MarburgMarburgGermany
  17. 17.MICROMUN GmbHGreifswaldGermany
  18. 18.School of Life SciencesUniversity of WarwickCoventryUK
  19. 19.Department of Molecular MedicineMayo ClinicRochesterUSA
  20. 20.State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology and Ministry of Agriculture Key Lab of Molecular Biology of Crop Pathogens and InsectsInstitute of Insect Sciences, Zhèjiāng UniversityHángzhōuChina
  21. 21.World Health OrganizationGenevaSwitzerland
  22. 22.Department of ViroscienceErasmus Medical CenterRotterdamThe Netherlands
  23. 23.Department of Biology, Center for Genomics and Systems BiologyNew York UniversityNew YorkUSA
  24. 24.Centre for Tropical Crops and BiocommoditiesQueensland University of TechnologyBrisbaneAustralia
  25. 25.Public Health EnglandSalisburyUK
  26. 26.Institute of Applied EcologySchool of Science, Auckland University of TechnologyAucklandNew Zealand
  27. 27.AUT Roche Diagnostic LaboratoryAuckland University of TechnologyAucklandNew Zealand
  28. 28.Analysis Center of Agrobiology and Environmental Sciences and Institute of Agrobiology and Environmental SciencesZhèjiāng UniversityHángzhōuChina
  29. 29.Hakubi Center for Advanced ResearchKyoto UniversityKyotoJapan
  30. 30.State Key Laboratory of Agricultural MicrobiologyThe Provincial Key Lab of Plant Pathology of Húběi Province, College of Plant Science and Technology, Huázhōng Agricultural UniversityWǔhànChina
  31. 31.Department of MicrobiologyImmunology and Infectious Diseases Université LavalQuebec CityCanada
  32. 32.Institute of Plant Science and ResourcesOkayama UniversityKurashikiJapan
  33. 33.US Geological Survey Western Fisheries Research CenterSeattleUSA
  34. 34.Department of Molecular BiosciencesNorthwestern UniversityEvanstonUSA
  35. 35.Howard Hughes Medical InstituteNorthwestern UniversityEvanstonUSA
  36. 36.Department of MicrobiologyIcahn School of Medicine at Mount SinaiNew YorkUSA
  37. 37.Centre International de Recherches Médicales de FrancevilleInstitut de Recherche pour le DéveloppementFrancevilleGabon
  38. 38.Department of Microbiology andNational Emerging Infectious Diseases Laboratories, Boston University School of MedicineBostonUSA
  39. 39.Novosibirsk State UniversityNovosibirskRussia
  40. 40.Institute of VirologyUniversity of Veterinary MedicineViennaAustria
  41. 41.Department of Basic Medical SciencesCollege of Medicine, Mohammed Bin Rashid University of Medicine and Health SciencesDubaiUnited Arab Emirates
  42. 42.Department of Virology and ImmunologyTexas Biomedical Research InstituteSan AntonioUSA
  43. 43.Department of Veterinary PathobiologyCollege of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M UniversityCollege StationUSA
  44. 44.Center for Emerging and Zoonotic DiseasesNational Institute for Communicable Diseases of the National Health Laboratory ServiceJohannesburgSouth Africa
  45. 45.School of Biological SciencesThe University of AucklandAucklandNew Zealand
  46. 46.Biomedical Sciences Research ComplexUniversity of St. AndrewsSt. AndrewsScotland, UK
  47. 47.Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference LaboratoryDoherty Institute of Infection and ImmunityMelbourneAustralia
  48. 48.Centre for Experimental MedicineSchool of Medicine, Dentistry and Biomedical Sciences, The Queen’s University of BelfastBelfastNorthern Ireland, UK
  49. 49.National Center for Immunization and Respiratory DiseasesCenters for Disease Control and PreventionAtlantaUSA
  50. 50.Institute for VirologyMedical Center, University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of FreiburgFreiburgGermany
  51. 51.CBR DivisionSalisburyUK
  52. 52.Division of Plant SciencesCollege of Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources, University of MissouriColumbiaUSA
  53. 53.Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture ScienceWeymouthUK
  54. 54.Division of Global EpidemiologyHokkaido University Research Center for Zoonosis ControlSapporoJapan
  55. 55.Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle VenezieDepartment of Comparative Biomedical Sciences, National/OIE Reference Laboratory for Newcastle Disease and Avian Influenza, FAO Reference Centre for Animal Influenza and Newcastle Disease, OIE Collaborating Centre for Diseases at the Human-Animal InterfaceLegnaroItaly
  56. 56.Institute for Frontier Life and Medical Sciences (inFront)Kyoto UniversityKyotoJapan
  57. 57.Institut PasteurUnité des Stratégies Antivirales, WHO Collaborative Centre for Viral Haemorrhagic Fevers and Arboviruses, OIE Reference Laboratory for RVFV and CCHFVParisFrance
  58. 58.Viral Special Pathogens BranchDivision of High-Consequence Pathogens Pathology, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and PreventionAtlantaUSA
  59. 59.Molecular Basis of Viral PathogenicityCIRIINSERM U1111 - CNRS UMR5308, Université de Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1LyonFrance
  60. 60.National Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures CenterFrederickUSA
  61. 61.School of Biological SciencesUniversity of QueenslandSt. LuciaAustralia
  62. 62.Departments of Molecular Microbiology and Pathology and ImmunologyWashington University School of MedicineSt. LouisUSA
  63. 63.Programme in Emerging Infectious DiseasesDuke-NUS Medical SchoolSingaporeSingapore
  64. 64.Department of BiologyUniversity of RochesterRochesterUSA
  65. 65.Plant Pathology, Kansas State UniversityManhattanUSA
  66. 66.Institut Pasteur de GuinéeConakryGuinea

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