Archives of Virology

, Volume 161, Issue 12, pp 3405–3411 | Cite as

Low prevalence of hepatitis B vaccine escape mutants among individuals born after the initiation of a nationwide vaccination program in Iran

  • Mohammad Reza Aghasadeghi
  • Ali Akbar Velayati
  • Setareh Mamishi
  • Mahmood Nabavi
  • Arezoo Aghakhani
  • Farahnaz Bidari-Zerehpoosh
  • Mohammad-Taghi Haghi Ashtiani
  • Shahram Sabeti
  • Mohammad Banifazl
  • Fatemeh Azimian-Zavareh
  • Fatemeh Motevalli
  • Sepehr Soleymani
  • Amitis RamezaniEmail author
Original Article


A nationwide hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination program for neonates was launched in Iran in 1993. Despite the success of this program, concern about its long-term success still remains, because breakthrough infections due to emergence of surface mutants have been reported in immunized children. We aimed to evaluate the seroprevalence of HBV and vaccine escape mutants among individuals born after the initiation of the nationwide vaccination program in Iran. This study included 1115 participants younger than 23 years old, with 223 in each age cohort. The presence of HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc was evaluated using an ELISA kit. HBV-DNA levels were measured in anti-HBc and/or HBsAg-positive subjects. PCR products were sequenced and mutations were identified. The overall HBsAg prevalence was 0.27 %. Anti-HBs and anti-HBc positive rates were 48 % and 0.18 %, respectively. Two individuals were positive for anti-HBc, one of whom was also positive for HBsAg, and the other was positive for anti-HBc only. HBV DNA was detected in three out of four anti-HBc-and /or HBsAg-positive subjects. An I195M mutation within the S gene was detected in two of the three HBV-DNA-positive cases. A very low prevalence of HBsAg and isolated anti-HBc were found in this study. The I195M mutation found in the surface gene could have been induced by immune pressure. Although the number of ‘‘vaccine escape’’ mutants found in this cohort was low, ongoing surveillance of breakthrough infections and escape mutants is still needed.


Escape Mutant Breakthrough Infection HBsAg Prevalence Vaccine Escape Mutant Nationwide Vaccination Program 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors are grateful to Pasteur Institute of Iran for financial support of this study.

Compliance with ethical standards


This study was funded by Pasteur Institute of Iran (grant number: 767).

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the Pasteur Institute of Iran ethics committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohammad Reza Aghasadeghi
    • 1
  • Ali Akbar Velayati
    • 2
  • Setareh Mamishi
    • 3
  • Mahmood Nabavi
    • 4
  • Arezoo Aghakhani
    • 5
  • Farahnaz Bidari-Zerehpoosh
    • 6
  • Mohammad-Taghi Haghi Ashtiani
    • 7
  • Shahram Sabeti
    • 6
  • Mohammad Banifazl
    • 8
  • Fatemeh Azimian-Zavareh
    • 9
  • Fatemeh Motevalli
    • 1
  • Sepehr Soleymani
    • 1
  • Amitis Ramezani
    • 5
    Email author
  1. 1.Hepatitis and AIDS DeptartmentPasteur Institute of IranTehranIran
  2. 2.Pediatric Respiratory Diseases Research CenterShahid Beheshti University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  3. 3.Pediatric Infectious Disease Research CenterTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  4. 4.Center for Communicable Disease ControlMinistry of Health and Medical EducationTehranIran
  5. 5.Clinical Research DeptartmentPasteur Institute of IranTehranIran
  6. 6.Pathology Ward, Loghman Hakim HospitalShahid Beheshti University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  7. 7.Pediatrics Center of Excellence, Children’s Medical CenterTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  8. 8.Iranian Society for Support of Patients with Infectious DiseaseTehranIran
  9. 9.Hepatitis Deptartment, Center for Communicable Disease ControlMinistry of Health and Medical EducationTehranIran

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