Archives of Virology

, Volume 161, Issue 10, pp 2819–2824 | Cite as

Genetic characterization of influenza A virus subtypes H1N3 and H1N9 isolated from free-grazing ducks in Thailand

  • Supassama Chaiyawong
  • Supanat Boonyapisitsopa
  • Waleemas Jairak
  • Nutthawan Nonthabenjawan
  • Ratanaporn Tangwangvivat
  • Napawan Bunpapong
  • Alongkorn AmonsinEmail author
Brief Report


Influenza A virus (IAV) subtype H1 has been reported to infect birds, pigs and humans. In this study, we characterized IAVs subtype H1N3 and H1N9 isolated from free-grazing ducks in Thailand. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Thai IAV-H1 isolates cluster with avian Eurasian-lineage but not pandemic H1N1 viruses. Analysis of the viruses indicated low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) characteristics. This study is the first report of avian H1N3 and H1N9 in Thailand. Although Thai IAV-H1 viruses do not pose a risk of a pandemic, routine surveillance and genetic monitoring of IAVs should be conducted.


Influenza Avian Influenza Oseltamivir Avian Influenza Virus Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



We would like to thank Chulalongkorn University for its financial support to the Center of Excellence for Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases in Animals, and the Thailand Research Fund for providing its financial support to RGJ, a Ph.D. scholarship to SC (PHD/0181/2553), and the TRF Senior Scholar to AA (RTA5780006).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Supplementary material

705_2016_2962_MOESM1_ESM.docx (57 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 57 kb)
705_2016_2962_MOESM2_ESM.docx (49 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOCX 49 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Supassama Chaiyawong
    • 1
    • 2
  • Supanat Boonyapisitsopa
    • 2
  • Waleemas Jairak
    • 1
    • 2
  • Nutthawan Nonthabenjawan
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ratanaporn Tangwangvivat
    • 1
    • 2
  • Napawan Bunpapong
    • 2
  • Alongkorn Amonsin
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Veterinary Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary ScienceChulalongkorn UniversityBangkokThailand
  2. 2.Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases in Animals, Center of Excellence, Faculty of Veterinary ScienceChulalongkorn UniversityBangkokThailand

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