Archives of Virology

, Volume 161, Issue 9, pp 2379–2385 | Cite as

Characterization of the nuclear import signal of herpes simplex virus 1 UL31

  • Mingsheng Cai
  • Daixiong Chen
  • Zhancheng Zeng
  • Hang Yang
  • Si Jiang
  • Xiaowei Li
  • Jingying Mai
  • Tao Peng
  • Meili LiEmail author
Original Article


The herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) UL31 protein is a multifunctional nucleoprotein that is important for viral infection; however, little is known concerning its subcellular localization signal. Here, by transfection with a series of HSV-1 UL31 deletion mutants fused to enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP), a bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS) was identified and mapped to amino acids (aa) 1 to 27 (MYDTDPHRRGSRPGPYHGKERRRSRSS). Additionally, fluorescence results showed that the predicted nuclear export signal (NES) might be nonfunctional, and the functional NES of UL31 might require a specific conformation. Taken together, these results would provide significant information for the study of the biological function of UL31 during HSV-1 infection.


Nuclear Localization Signal Nuclear Export Signal Enhance Yellow Fluorescent Protein Bipartite Nuclear Localization Signal 15PY16 Motif 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This work was supported by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31400150 and 31200120); the Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province (2015A030313473 and S2013040016596); the Science and Technology Plan Projects of Guangzhou City, China (201607010088 and 2013J4100030); the Pearl River S&T Nova Program of Guangzhou (2013J2200018); the Training Program for Outstanding Young Teachers in Universities of Guangdong Province (YQ2015132); the Science Research Foundation from Department of Education of Guangdong, China (2013LYM_0096 and 2013KJCX0154); the Science and Technology Program of Guangdong, China (2013B031800022); the Scientific Research Projects in Colleges and Universities of Guangzhou (1201430024, 1201610025 and 1201610024); the Scientific Research Foundation for the Ph.D., Guangzhou Medical University (2014C02); the Medical Scientific Research Foundation of Guangdong Province, China (B2012165); the Thousand Hundred Ten Projects of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangdong; Guangdong Undergraduate Training Programs of Science & Technology Innovation (Guangdong Climb Plan: pdjh2016a0406 and pdjh2016b0409); and the Students’ Extracurricular Scientific and Technological Activities in Guangzhou Medical University (2015A003, 2015A008, 2015A019 and 2015B020). We thank Dr. Chunfu Zheng (Institutes of Biology and Medical Sciences, Soochow University) for the generous gift of the HSV-1 F strain.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mingsheng Cai
    • 1
    • 2
  • Daixiong Chen
    • 1
    • 2
  • Zhancheng Zeng
    • 1
  • Hang Yang
    • 2
  • Si Jiang
    • 1
  • Xiaowei Li
    • 1
  • Jingying Mai
    • 1
  • Tao Peng
    • 1
    • 2
  • Meili Li
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Pathogenic Biology and Immunology, Guangzhou Hoffmann Institute of Immunology, School of Basic ScienceGuangzhou Medical UniversityGuangzhouPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Allergic Reactions & Clinical Immunology, The Second Affiliated HospitalGuangzhou Medical UniversityGuangzhouPeople’s Republic of China

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