Advertisement

Archives of Virology

, Volume 161, Issue 7, pp 2019–2024 | Cite as

Paper-based archiving of biological samples from fish for detecting betanodavirus

  • A. Navaneeth Krishnan
  • T. Bhuvaneswari
  • P. Ezhil Praveena
  • K. P. JithendranEmail author
Brief Report

Abstract

This study was carried out to evaluate the efficiency of the Flinders Technology Associates (FTA®) card (Whatman®) as a sampling device and storage platform for RNA from betanodavirus-infected biological samples (viz., larvae, broodstock, cell culture supernatants and rearing seawater spiked with infected materials). The study showed that FTA cards can be used to detect betanodaviruses by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The diagnostic efficiency of RT-PCR from all sample types on FTA cards decreased after 21 days of storage at 4 °C, although the virus could be detected up to 28 days by nested RT-PCR. The FTA card protocol thus provides a supplementary method for quick and easy collection of samples, preservation of RNA on a dry storage basis, and detection of betanodavirus-infected fish.

Keywords

Viral Nervous Necrosis Striped Jack Nervous Necrosis Virus Larval Homogenate Reverse Transcription Nest Polymerase Chain Reaction Flinder Technology Associate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful to the Director, Central Institute of Brackishwater Aquaculture (Chennai), for providing funds and necessary facilities. The first author is grateful to National Fisheries Development Board (Hyderabad) for a Senior Research Fellowship under the National Surveillance Programme on Aquatic Animal Diseases coordinated by the National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources (NBFGR), Lucknow (India).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Supplementary material

705_2016_2875_MOESM1_ESM.doc (49 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 49 kb)
705_2016_2875_MOESM2_ESM.doc (30 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOC 29 kb)

References

  1. 1.
    Azad IS, Jithendran KP, Shekhar MS, Thirunavukkarasu AR, de la Pena LD (2006) Immunolocalisation of nervous necrosis virus indicates vertical transmission in hatchery produced Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer Bloch)—a case study. Aquaculture 255:39–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Breuil G, Romstand B (1999) A rapid ELISA method for detecting specific antibody level against nodavirus in the serum of the sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax (L.): application to the screening of spawners in a sea bass hatchery. J Fish Dis 22:45–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Breuil G, Pepin JFP, Boscher S, Thiery R (2002) Experimental vertical transmission of nodavirus from broodfish to eggs and larvae of the sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax (L.). J Fish Dis 25:697–702CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dalla Valle L, Zanella L, Patarnello P, Paolucci L, Belvedere P, Colombo L (2000) Development of a sensitive diagnostic assay for fish nervous necrosis virus based on RT-PCR plus nested PCR. J Fish Dis 23:321–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Desbois D, Roque-Afonso AM, Lebraud P, Dussaix E (2009) Use of dried serum spots for serological and molecular detection of hepatitis A virus. J Clin Microbiol 47:1536–1542CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Duscher G, Peschke R, Wille-Piazzai W, Joachim A (2009) Parasites on paper - The use of FTA EluteR for the detection of Dirofilaria repens microfilariae in canine blood. Vet Parasitol 161:349–351CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Harvey ML (2005) An alternative for the extraction and storage of DNA from insects in forensic entomology. J Forensic Sci 50:627–629CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hick P, Schipp G, Bosmans J, Humphrey J, Whittington R (2011) Recurrent outbreaks of viral nervous necrosis in intensively cultured barramundi (Lates calcarifer) due to horizontal transmission of betanodavirus and recommendations for disease control. Aquaculture 319:41–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Jithendran KP, Binesh CP (2011) Viral nervous necrosis-an emerging disease in finfish aquaculture. Ind Farming 61:27–29Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Linhares DCL, Rovira A, Torremorell M (2012) Evaluation of Flinders Technology Associates cards for collection and transport of samples for detection of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. J Vet Diagn Invest 24:328–332CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Madhanmohan M, Yuvaraj S, Manikumar K, Kumar R, Nagendrakumar SB, Rana SK, Srinivasan VA (2015) Evaluation of the flinders technology associates cards for rage and temperature challenges in field conditions for foot-and-mouth disease virus surveillance. Trans Emerg Dis. doi: 10.1111/tbed.12316 Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Munday BL, Kwang J, Moody N (2002) Betanodavirus infections in teleost fish: a review. J Fish Dis 25:127–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Mushiake K, Nishizawa T, Nakai T, Furusawa I, Muroga L (1994) Control of VNN in striped jack: selection of spawners based on the detection of SJNNV gene by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Fish Pathol 29:177–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Narayanan MS, Parthiban M, Sathiya P, Kumanan K (2010) Molecular detection of Newcastle disease virus using Flinders Technology Associates-PCR. Vet Arhiv 80:51–60Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Natarajan P, Trinh T, Mertz L, Goldsborough M, Fox DK (2000) Paper-based archiving of mammalian and plant samples for RNA analysis. BioTechniques 29:1328–1333PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Nerland AH, Skaar C, Eriksen TB, Bleie H (2007) Detection of nodavirus in seawater from rearing facilities for Atlantic halibut Hippoglossus hippoglossus larvae. Dis Aquat Org 73:201–205CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Nguyen HD, Mushiake K, Nakai T (1997) Tissue distribution of striped jack nervous necrosis virus (SJNNV) in adult striped jack. Dis Aquat Org 28:87–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Nishizawa T, Mori K, Nakai T, Furusawa I, Muroga K (1994) Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of RNA of striped jack nervous necrosis virus. Dis Aquat Org 18:103–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    OIE-World Organisation for Animal Health (2015). Viral encephalopathy and retinopathy In: OIE (ed) Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals 2015, Chapter 2.3.11. Office International des Epizooties, Paris, pp 1–19. http://www.oie.int/international-standard-setting/aquatic-manual/access-online/ (accessed 20 Jan 2016)
  20. 20.
    Olveira JG, Soares F, Engrola S, Dopazo CP, Bandın I (2008) Antemortem versus postmortem methods for detection of betanodavirus in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis). J Vet Diagn Invest 20:215–219CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Perozoa F, Villegasa P, Estevezb C, Alvaradoa I, Purvis LB (2006) Use of FTA® filter paper for the molecular detection of Newcastle disease virus. Avian Pathol 35:93–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sudhakaran R, Mekata T, Kono T, Supamattaya K, Linh NTH, Suzuki Y, Sakai M, Itami T (2009) A simple non-enzymatic method for the preparation of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) DNA from the haemolymph of Marsupenaeus japonicus using FTA matrix cards. J Fish Dis 32:611–617CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Suematsu N, Isohashi F (2006) Rapid and simple screening of transgenic mice: novel extraction-free, filter-based PCR genotyping from blood samples. Acta Biochim Pol 53:613–616PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Virus Taxonomy (2014). http://www.ictvonline.org/virusTaxonomy.asp (accessed 20 Jan 2016)

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Navaneeth Krishnan
    • 1
  • T. Bhuvaneswari
    • 1
  • P. Ezhil Praveena
    • 1
  • K. P. Jithendran
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Aquatic Animal Health and Environment DivisionCentral Institute of Brackishwater AquacultureChennaiIndia

Personalised recommendations