Archives of Virology

, Volume 161, Issue 7, pp 2019–2024 | Cite as

Paper-based archiving of biological samples from fish for detecting betanodavirus

  • A. Navaneeth Krishnan
  • T. Bhuvaneswari
  • P. Ezhil Praveena
  • K. P. JithendranEmail author
Brief Report


This study was carried out to evaluate the efficiency of the Flinders Technology Associates (FTA®) card (Whatman®) as a sampling device and storage platform for RNA from betanodavirus-infected biological samples (viz., larvae, broodstock, cell culture supernatants and rearing seawater spiked with infected materials). The study showed that FTA cards can be used to detect betanodaviruses by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The diagnostic efficiency of RT-PCR from all sample types on FTA cards decreased after 21 days of storage at 4 °C, although the virus could be detected up to 28 days by nested RT-PCR. The FTA card protocol thus provides a supplementary method for quick and easy collection of samples, preservation of RNA on a dry storage basis, and detection of betanodavirus-infected fish.


Viral Nervous Necrosis Striped Jack Nervous Necrosis Virus Larval Homogenate Reverse Transcription Nest Polymerase Chain Reaction Flinder Technology Associate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors are grateful to the Director, Central Institute of Brackishwater Aquaculture (Chennai), for providing funds and necessary facilities. The first author is grateful to National Fisheries Development Board (Hyderabad) for a Senior Research Fellowship under the National Surveillance Programme on Aquatic Animal Diseases coordinated by the National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources (NBFGR), Lucknow (India).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Supplementary material

705_2016_2875_MOESM1_ESM.doc (49 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 49 kb)
705_2016_2875_MOESM2_ESM.doc (30 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOC 29 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Navaneeth Krishnan
    • 1
  • T. Bhuvaneswari
    • 1
  • P. Ezhil Praveena
    • 1
  • K. P. Jithendran
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Aquatic Animal Health and Environment DivisionCentral Institute of Brackishwater AquacultureChennaiIndia

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