Paper-based archiving of biological samples from fish for detecting betanodavirus
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This study was carried out to evaluate the efficiency of the Flinders Technology Associates (FTA®) card (Whatman®) as a sampling device and storage platform for RNA from betanodavirus-infected biological samples (viz., larvae, broodstock, cell culture supernatants and rearing seawater spiked with infected materials). The study showed that FTA cards can be used to detect betanodaviruses by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The diagnostic efficiency of RT-PCR from all sample types on FTA cards decreased after 21 days of storage at 4 °C, although the virus could be detected up to 28 days by nested RT-PCR. The FTA card protocol thus provides a supplementary method for quick and easy collection of samples, preservation of RNA on a dry storage basis, and detection of betanodavirus-infected fish.
KeywordsViral Nervous Necrosis Striped Jack Nervous Necrosis Virus Larval Homogenate Reverse Transcription Nest Polymerase Chain Reaction Flinder Technology Associate
The authors are grateful to the Director, Central Institute of Brackishwater Aquaculture (Chennai), for providing funds and necessary facilities. The first author is grateful to National Fisheries Development Board (Hyderabad) for a Senior Research Fellowship under the National Surveillance Programme on Aquatic Animal Diseases coordinated by the National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources (NBFGR), Lucknow (India).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
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