Circulation and in vivo distribution of duck hepatitis A virus types 1 and 3 in infected ducklings
- 373 Downloads
The circulation of duck hepatitis A virus types 1 (DHAV-1) and 3 (DHAV-3) in Southeast Asia has resulted in a continuously changing epidemiological scenario. In this study, a duplex real-time PCR assay for simultaneous quantitative detection of DHAV-1 and DHAV-3 was established, and 200 liver samples from dead ducklings collected from 31 different flocks in Shandong province, China, were tested. Fifty-eight (29.0 %) samples from 13 flocks were positive for DHAV-1 single infection, 113 (56.5 %) samples from 13 other flocks were positive for DHAV-3 single infection, and 24 samples (12.0 %) from four flocks were positive for both viruses. DHAV-1 and DHAV-3 were detected with high viral loads in all of the organs tested (liver, spleen, pancreas, kidney, heart, thymus, bursa of Fabricius and brain). No significant difference in DHAV-1 and DHAV-3 viral loads was found between singly infected and coinfected samples, and there was no correlation between the viral loads of the two viruses and the age of dead ducklings. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report about the in vivo distribution of DHAV-1 and DHAV-3 in clinically infected ducklings.
KeywordsViral Load Newcastle Disease Virus Entecavir High Viral Load Standard Template
This study was funded by grants from A Project of Shandong Province Agriculture Major Applied Technique Innovation, China and Shandong Modern Agricultural Technology & Industry System, China (SDAIT-13-011-15).
- 1.Levine PP, Fabricant J (1950) A hitherto-undescribed virus disease of ducks in North America. Cornell Vet 40:71–86Google Scholar
- 4.Woolcock PR (2003) Duck hepatitis. In: Salf YM, Barnes HJ, Glisson JR, Fadly AM, McDougald LR, Swayne DE (eds) Diseases of poultry, 11th edn. Iowa State Press, Ames, pp 343–354Google Scholar
- 5.Bosch A, Guix S, Krishna NK, Méndez E, Monroe SS, Pantin-Jackwood M, Schultz-Cherry S (2011) Astroviridae. In: King AMQ, Adams MJ, Carstens EB, Lefkowitz EJ (eds) Virus taxonomy. Classification and nomenclature of viruses: ninth report of the International Committee on the Taxonomy of Viruses. Elsevier Academic Press, London, pp 953–959Google Scholar
- 6.Knowles NJ, Hovi T, Hyypiä T, King AMQ, Lindberg AM, Pallansch MA, Palmenberg AC, Simmonds P, Skern T, Stanway G, Yamashita T, Zell R (2012) Picornaviridae. In: King AMQ, Adams MJ, Carstens EB, Lefkowitz EJ (eds) Virus taxonomy. Classification and nomenclature of viruses: ninth report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Elsevier Academic Press, San Diego, pp 855–880Google Scholar
- 20.Guo YP, Pan WS (1984) Preliminary identifications of the duck hepatitis virus serotypes isolated in Beijing, China. J Vet Med 10:2–3 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
- 29.Zoulim F, Saadi F, Buronfosse T, Abdul F, In Cova L, Locarnini S, Lai CL (2008) Hepatitis B virus. International Medicine Press, London, pp 61–620Google Scholar