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Archives of Virology

, Volume 161, Issue 2, pp 405–416 | Cite as

Circulation and in vivo distribution of duck hepatitis A virus types 1 and 3 in infected ducklings

  • Shao-Li Lin
  • Ri-Chao Cong
  • Rui-Hua Zhang
  • Jun-Hao Chen
  • Lin-Lin Xia
  • Zhi-Jing Xie
  • Yu Wang
  • Yan-Li Zhu
  • Shi-Jin JiangEmail author
Original Article

Abstract

The circulation of duck hepatitis A virus types 1 (DHAV-1) and 3 (DHAV-3) in Southeast Asia has resulted in a continuously changing epidemiological scenario. In this study, a duplex real-time PCR assay for simultaneous quantitative detection of DHAV-1 and DHAV-3 was established, and 200 liver samples from dead ducklings collected from 31 different flocks in Shandong province, China, were tested. Fifty-eight (29.0 %) samples from 13 flocks were positive for DHAV-1 single infection, 113 (56.5 %) samples from 13 other flocks were positive for DHAV-3 single infection, and 24 samples (12.0 %) from four flocks were positive for both viruses. DHAV-1 and DHAV-3 were detected with high viral loads in all of the organs tested (liver, spleen, pancreas, kidney, heart, thymus, bursa of Fabricius and brain). No significant difference in DHAV-1 and DHAV-3 viral loads was found between singly infected and coinfected samples, and there was no correlation between the viral loads of the two viruses and the age of dead ducklings. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report about the in vivo distribution of DHAV-1 and DHAV-3 in clinically infected ducklings.

Keywords

Viral Load Newcastle Disease Virus Entecavir High Viral Load Standard Template 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study was funded by grants from A Project of Shandong Province Agriculture Major Applied Technique Innovation, China and Shandong Modern Agricultural Technology & Industry System, China (SDAIT-13-011-15).

Supplementary material

705_2015_2648_MOESM1_ESM.doc (56 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (doc 56 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shao-Li Lin
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ri-Chao Cong
    • 1
    • 2
  • Rui-Hua Zhang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jun-Hao Chen
    • 1
    • 2
  • Lin-Lin Xia
    • 1
    • 2
  • Zhi-Jing Xie
    • 1
    • 2
  • Yu Wang
    • 3
  • Yan-Li Zhu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Shi-Jin Jiang
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary MedicineShandong Agricultural UniversityTaianChina
  2. 2.Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology and Disease Control and PreventionTaianChina
  3. 3.Department of Basic Medical SciencesTaishan Medical CollegeTaianChina

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