Archives of Virology

, Volume 161, Issue 1, pp 177–180 | Cite as

First detection of ungulate tetraparvovirus 1 (bovine hokovirus 1) in domestic yaks in northwestern China

  • Fang Xu
  • Yangyang Pan
  • Meng Wang
  • Xin Wu
  • Lili Tian
  • Abdul Rasheed Baloch
  • Qiaoying Zeng
Brief Report


We describe the discovery and phylogenetic analysis of ungulate tetraparvovirus 1 (also referred to as bovine hokovirus 1, B-PARV4, or partetravirus) in domestic yaks (Bos grunniens) in northwestern China. The yak B-PARV4 genome was detected in yak blood samples by PCR, using B-PARV4 primers corresponding to conserved regions. Twenty-two of 370 samples were positive for a B-PARV4-related genome sequence, indicating an overall prevalence of 5.95 %. The prevalence in Qinghai Province (13/195, 6.67 %) and Gansu Province (9/175, 5.14 %) was similar, but it varied significantly between yaks ≤ 1 year old (15/177, 8.47 %) and yaks > 1 year old (7/193, 3.6 %) (p < 0.05). An alignment of the nearly full-length genome sequences of all 22 strains identified six different genomic sequences. A phylogenetic analysis revealed 99.0–99.7 % sequence identity between these six genomes and all known B-PARV4 genomes, excluding JF504698 (only 88.6 % identity), which represents another genotype. This is the first discovery of B-PARV4-related viruses in domestic yaks.


Gansu Province Bovine Species Terminal Hairpin Ovine Species Eidolon Helvum 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



We thank China Animal Health and Epidemiology Center for their valuable assistance in sample collection. This work was supported by a grant from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 31260616) and the Fuxi Foundation of Exceptional Talent at Gansu Agricultural University.

Compliance with ethical standards

Ethical statement

All procedures in this study were approved by the Animal Care and Use Committee of Gansu Agricultural University and performed in accordance with animal welfare and ethics.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fang Xu
    • 1
  • Yangyang Pan
    • 1
  • Meng Wang
    • 2
  • Xin Wu
    • 1
  • Lili Tian
    • 3
  • Abdul Rasheed Baloch
    • 4
  • Qiaoying Zeng
    • 1
  1. 1.The College of Veterinary MedicineGansu Agricultural UniversityLanzhouPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.The College of Veterinary MedicineNorthwest A&F UniversityYanglingPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.China Animal Health and Epidemiology CenterQingdaoPeople’s Republic of China
  4. 4.Faculty of Veterinary ScienceSindh Agriculture UniversityTandojamPakistan

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