First detection of ungulate tetraparvovirus 1 (bovine hokovirus 1) in domestic yaks in northwestern China
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We describe the discovery and phylogenetic analysis of ungulate tetraparvovirus 1 (also referred to as bovine hokovirus 1, B-PARV4, or partetravirus) in domestic yaks (Bos grunniens) in northwestern China. The yak B-PARV4 genome was detected in yak blood samples by PCR, using B-PARV4 primers corresponding to conserved regions. Twenty-two of 370 samples were positive for a B-PARV4-related genome sequence, indicating an overall prevalence of 5.95 %. The prevalence in Qinghai Province (13/195, 6.67 %) and Gansu Province (9/175, 5.14 %) was similar, but it varied significantly between yaks ≤ 1 year old (15/177, 8.47 %) and yaks > 1 year old (7/193, 3.6 %) (p < 0.05). An alignment of the nearly full-length genome sequences of all 22 strains identified six different genomic sequences. A phylogenetic analysis revealed 99.0–99.7 % sequence identity between these six genomes and all known B-PARV4 genomes, excluding JF504698 (only 88.6 % identity), which represents another genotype. This is the first discovery of B-PARV4-related viruses in domestic yaks.
KeywordsGansu Province Bovine Species Terminal Hairpin Ovine Species Eidolon Helvum
We thank China Animal Health and Epidemiology Center for their valuable assistance in sample collection. This work was supported by a grant from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 31260616) and the Fuxi Foundation of Exceptional Talent at Gansu Agricultural University.
Compliance with ethical standards
All procedures in this study were approved by the Animal Care and Use Committee of Gansu Agricultural University and performed in accordance with animal welfare and ethics.
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