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Archives of Virology

, Volume 160, Issue 11, pp 2703–2708 | Cite as

Horizontal study of vaccinia virus infections in an endemic area: epidemiologic, phylogenetic and economic aspects

  • Felipe L. Assis
  • Ana Paula M. Franco-Luiz
  • Luis M. Paim
  • Graziele P. Oliveira
  • Alexandre F. Pereira
  • Gabriel M. F. de Almeida
  • Leandra B. Figueiredo
  • Adriano Tanus
  • Giliane S. Trindade
  • Paulo P. Ferreira
  • Erna G. Kroon
  • Jônatas S. Abrahão
Original Article

Abstract

Vaccinia virus (VACV), the etiological agent of bovine vaccinia (BV), is widespread in Brazil and present in most of the milk-producing regions. We conducted a horizontal study of BV in Bahia, a state of Brazil in which the production of milk is increasing. During 2011, human and bovine clinical samples were collected during outbreaks for BV diagnosis, virus isolation and molecular analysis. We collected data for epidemiological inferences. Vaccinia virus was detected in 87.7 % of the analyzed outbreaks, highlighting the effective circulation of VACV in Bahia. The molecular data showed the spreading of group 1 Brazilian VACV to Bahia. We observed a seasonal profile of BV, with its peak in the drier and cooler season. Manual milking was observed in 96 % of the visited properties, showing its importance to viral spread in herds. Under-notification of BV, ineffective animal trade surveillance, and bad milking practices have contributed to the spread of VACV in Brazil.

Keywords

Beef Cattle Cowpox Bovine Sample Vaccinia Virus Infection Monkeypox 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank our colleagues from the Laboratório de Vírus for their excellent technical support. Financial support was provided by the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq), Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES), Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais (FAPEMIG), Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento (MAPA), and Pro-Reitoria de Pesquisa da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (PRPq-UFMG). E.G. Kroon, G.S. Trindade and P.C.P. Ferreira are researchers from CNPq.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.

Supplementary material

705_2015_2549_MOESM1_ESM.tif (131 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (TIFF 130 kb) Fig. S1 Annual VACV outbreak notification associated with the pluviometric index and temperature variation during 2011 in Bahia
705_2015_2549_MOESM2_ESM.tif (8.3 mb)
Supplementary material 2 (TIFF 8468 kb) Fig. S2 Alignment of the Brazilian VACV A56R (A) and A27L (B) genes. The gray boxes highlight the deletion signatures in Brazilian VACV group 1, which includes the new VACV-MUNV isolate. The sequences were retrieved from GenBank and aligned using the MEGA 4.0 program. GP1V, Guarani propriedade 1 virus; P1V, Pelotas 1 virus; SH2V, serro humano 2 virus; SH1V, serro humano 1 virus; SB1V, serro bovino 1 virus; MUNV, mundo novo virus; P2V, Pelotas 2 virus; MURV, Muriaé virus; CTGV, Cantagalo virus; ARAV, Araçatuba virus; MARV, Mariana virus; S2V, serro 2 virus; GP2V, Guarani propriedade 2 virus; IOC, Instituto Osvaldo Cruz; WR, Western reserve; LST, Lister; LBT, Lister butantã; HSPV, horsepox virus; MPXV, monkeypox virus
705_2015_2549_MOESM3_ESM.doc (31 kb)
Supplementary material 3 (DOC 31 kb

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Felipe L. Assis
    • 1
  • Ana Paula M. Franco-Luiz
    • 1
  • Luis M. Paim
    • 2
  • Graziele P. Oliveira
    • 1
  • Alexandre F. Pereira
    • 1
  • Gabriel M. F. de Almeida
    • 1
  • Leandra B. Figueiredo
    • 1
  • Adriano Tanus
    • 2
  • Giliane S. Trindade
    • 1
  • Paulo P. Ferreira
    • 1
  • Erna G. Kroon
    • 1
  • Jônatas S. Abrahão
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratório de Vírus, Departamento de Microbiologia, Instituto de Ciências BiológicasUniversidade Federal de Minas GeraisBelo HorizonteBrazil
  2. 2.Animal Defense DivisionAgência Estadual de Defesa Agropecuária da BahiaSalvadorBrazil

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