Horizontal study of vaccinia virus infections in an endemic area: epidemiologic, phylogenetic and economic aspects
Vaccinia virus (VACV), the etiological agent of bovine vaccinia (BV), is widespread in Brazil and present in most of the milk-producing regions. We conducted a horizontal study of BV in Bahia, a state of Brazil in which the production of milk is increasing. During 2011, human and bovine clinical samples were collected during outbreaks for BV diagnosis, virus isolation and molecular analysis. We collected data for epidemiological inferences. Vaccinia virus was detected in 87.7 % of the analyzed outbreaks, highlighting the effective circulation of VACV in Bahia. The molecular data showed the spreading of group 1 Brazilian VACV to Bahia. We observed a seasonal profile of BV, with its peak in the drier and cooler season. Manual milking was observed in 96 % of the visited properties, showing its importance to viral spread in herds. Under-notification of BV, ineffective animal trade surveillance, and bad milking practices have contributed to the spread of VACV in Brazil.
KeywordsBeef Cattle Cowpox Bovine Sample Vaccinia Virus Infection Monkeypox
We thank our colleagues from the Laboratório de Vírus for their excellent technical support. Financial support was provided by the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq), Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES), Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais (FAPEMIG), Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento (MAPA), and Pro-Reitoria de Pesquisa da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (PRPq-UFMG). E.G. Kroon, G.S. Trindade and P.C.P. Ferreira are researchers from CNPq.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.
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