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Archives of Virology

, Volume 160, Issue 9, pp 2259–2268 | Cite as

Distribution and phylogenetic analysis of Culex flavivirus in mosquitoes in China

  • Wenkai Liang
  • Xiaoxia He
  • Guifang Liu
  • Shaobai Zhang
  • Shihong Fu
  • Min Wang
  • Weixin Chen
  • Ying He
  • Xiaoyan Tao
  • Hongyue Jiang
  • Xiaojuan Lin
  • Xiaoyan Gao
  • Weijun Hu
  • Yan Liu
  • Lei Feng
  • Yuxi Cao
  • Guang Yang
  • Chunxia Jing
  • Guodong Liang
  • Huanyu Wang
Original Article

Abstract

Culex flavivirus (CxFV) is an insect-specific virus of the genus Flavivirus. CxFV strains have been isolated from Cx. pipiens, Cx. quinquefasciatus, and other Cx. species in Asia, Africa, North America, Central America and South America. CxFV was isolated for the first time in China in 2006. As this is a novel flavivirus, we explored the distribution and genetic characteristics of Culex flavivirus in China. A total of 46,649 mosquitoes were collected in seven provinces between 2004 and 2012 and were analysed in 871 pools. 29 CxFV RNAs from Cx. pipiens, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Anopheles Sinensis, and Culex spp. tested positive for CxFV in real-time RT-PCR. 6 CxFV strains were isolated from Cx. species collected in Shandong, Henan, and Shaanxi provinces, while no virus or viral RNA was detected in samples from Sichuan, Chongqing, Hubei, and Fujian. Phylogenetic analysis of the envelope gene indicated that Chinese strains formed a robust subgroup of genotype 1, together with viruses from the United States and Japan. This study demonstrates that the geographic distribution of CxFV in China is widespread, but geographical boundaries to spread are apparent. Our findings suggest that CxFV can infect various mosquito species in nature.

Keywords

West Nile Virus Japanese Encephalitis Virus Henan Province Amino Acid Sequence Identity Shaanxi Province 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank the staff of the Shandong and Shaanxi Province Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the local Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Longkou, Qingdao, Zichuan, Heze, Jining, Rizhao, Linyi, Weinan, Yanan and Hanzhong cities and Weishan County) for assistance with the mosquito collection.

This work was supported by grants from the Development Grant of State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control (2014SKLID103), (2012SKLID204), the Ministry of Science and Technology of People’s Republic of China (No. 2013ZX10004101) and (2011CB504702); and National Natural Science Foundation of China (81290342). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Supplementary material

705_2015_2492_MOESM1_ESM.docx (21 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 21 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wenkai Liang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Xiaoxia He
    • 2
  • Guifang Liu
    • 3
  • Shaobai Zhang
    • 4
  • Shihong Fu
    • 2
    • 6
  • Min Wang
    • 3
  • Weixin Chen
    • 2
  • Ying He
    • 2
    • 6
  • Xiaoyan Tao
    • 2
    • 6
  • Hongyue Jiang
    • 2
  • Xiaojuan Lin
    • 3
  • Xiaoyan Gao
    • 2
    • 6
  • Weijun Hu
    • 4
  • Yan Liu
    • 2
    • 5
  • Lei Feng
    • 3
  • Yuxi Cao
    • 2
    • 6
  • Guang Yang
    • 1
  • Chunxia Jing
    • 1
  • Guodong Liang
    • 2
    • 6
  • Huanyu Wang
    • 2
    • 6
  1. 1.Department to Epidemiology, School of MedicineJinan UniversityGuangzhouPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Department of Viral Encephalitis, Institute for Viral Disease Control and PreventionChinese Center for Disease Control and PreventionBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Institute for Immunization ProgramShandong province Center for Disease Control and PreventionJinanPeople’s Republic of China
  4. 4.Institute for Immunization ProgramShaanxi province Center for Disease Control and PreventionXi’anPeople’s Republic of China
  5. 5.School of Basic Medical SciencesHarbin Medical UniversityHarbinPeople’s Republic of China
  6. 6.Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious DiseasesHangzhouPeople’s Republic of China

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