Advertisement

Archives of Virology

, Volume 160, Issue 7, pp 1657–1667 | Cite as

Course and transmission characteristics of oral low-dose infection of domestic pigs and European wild boar with a Caucasian African swine fever virus isolate

  • Jana Pietschmann
  • Claire Guinat
  • Martin Beer
  • Valery Pronin
  • Kerstin Tauscher
  • Anja Petrov
  • Günther Keil
  • Sandra Blome
Original Article

Abstract

In 2007, African swine fever virus (ASFV) was introduced into the Transcaucasian countries and Russia. Since then, it has spread alarmingly and reached the European Union. ASFV strains are highly virulent and lead to almost 100 % mortality under experimental conditions. However, the possibility of dose-dependent disease courses has been discussed. For this reason, a study was undertaken to assess the risk of chronic disease and the establishment of carriers upon low-dose oronasal infection of domestic pigs and European wild boar. It was demonstrated that very low doses of ASFV are sufficient to infect especially weak or runted animals by the oronasal route. Some of these animals did not show clinical signs indicative of ASF, and they developed almost no fever. However, no changes were observed in individual animal regarding the onset, course and outcome of infection as assessed by diagnostic tests. After amplification of ASFV by these animals, pen- and stablemates became infected and developed acute lethal disease with similar characteristics in all animals. Thus, we found no indication of prolonged or chronic individual courses upon low-dose infection in either species. The scattered onset of clinical signs and pathogen detection within and among groups confirms moderate contagiosity that is strongly linked with blood contact. In conclusion, the prolonged course at the “herd level” together with the exceptionally low dose that proved to be sufficient to infect a runted wild boar could be important for disease dynamics in wild-boar populations and in backyard settings.

Keywords

Wild Boar Basic Reproduction Number African Swine Fever African Swine Fever Virus Wild Boar Population 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank all animal caretakers and technicians involved in this study for their excellent work. We are also very grateful to William Gilbert for improving the readability of this paper. This work was carried out as part of the European Union–funded project ASFORCE (Seventh Framework Programme, FP7/2007-2013, under Grant Agreement no. 311931).

Supplementary material

705_2015_2430_MOESM1_ESM.ppt (128 kb)
Supplementary Table 1 Rectal body temperatures of wild boar and domestic pigs after infection. Elevated body temperature (≥ 40.0 °C < 41.0 °C) is shaded in grey, whereas body temperature ≥ 41.0 °C is highlighted in orange. WB, wild boar; DP, domestic pig; dpi, days postinfection. “✞“ indicates that the animal was already dead at this time point. *, no data (PPT 128 kb)

References

  1. 1.
    Sánchez-Vizcaíno JM, Martínez-López B, Martínez-Avilés M, Martins C, Boinas F, Vial L, Michaud V, Jori F, Etter E, Albina E, Roger F (2009) Scientific review on African swine fever. EFSA Scientific Report, pp 1–141Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Blome S, Gabriel C, Dietze K, Breithaupt A, Beer M (2012) High virulence of African swine fever virus caucasus isolate in European wild boars of all ages. Emerg Infect Dis 18:708PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Blome S, Gabriel C, Beer M (2013) Pathogenesis of African swine fever in domestic pigs and European wild boar. Virus Res 173:122–130PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Carrascosa AL, Bustos MJ, de Leon P (2011) Methods for growing and titrating African swine fever virus: field and laboratory samples. In: Bonifacino JS et al (eds) Current protocols in cell biology, chapter 26, unit 26, p 14Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Costard S, Jones BA, Martinez-Lopez B, Mur L, de la Torre A, Martinez M, Sanchez-Vizcaino F, Sanchez-Vizcaino JM, Pfeiffer DU, Wieland B (2013) Introduction of African swine fever into the European Union through illegal importation of pork and pork products. PLoS ONE 8:e61104PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Costard S, Mur L, Lubroth J, Sanchez-Vizcaino JM, Pfeiffer DU (2013) Epidemiology of African swine fever virus. Virus Res 173:191–197PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Eble P, de Koeijer A, Bouma A, Stegeman A, Dekker A (2006) Quantification of within- and between-pen transmission of Foot-and-Mouth disease virus in pigs. Vet Res 37:647–654PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gabriel C, Blome S, Malogolovkin A, Parilov S, Kolbasov D, Teifke JP, Beer M (2011) Characterization of african Swine Fever virus caucasus isolate in European wild boars. Emerg Infect Dis 17:2342–2345PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Giammarioli M, Gallardo C, Oggiano A, Iscaro C, Nieto R, Pellegrini C, Dei Giudici S, Arias M, De Mia GM (2011) Genetic characterisation of African swine fever viruses from recent and historical outbreaks in Sardinia (1978–2009). Virus Genes 42:377–387PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gogin A, Gerasimov V, Malogolovkin A, Kolbasov D (2013) African swine fever in the North Caucasus region and the Russian Federation in years 2007–2012. Virus Res 173:198–203PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Greig A, Plowright W (1970) The excretion of two virulent strains of African swine fever virus by domestic pigs. J Hyg 68:673–682PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gulenkin VM, Korennoy FI, Karaulov AK, Dudnikov SA (2011) Cartographical analysis of African swine fever outbreaks in the territory of the Russian Federation and computer modeling of the basic reproduction ratio. Prev Vet Med 102:167–174PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Howey EB, O’Donnell V, Ferreira HCdC, Borca MV, Arzt J (2013) Pathogenesis of highly virulent African swine fever virus in domestic pigs exposed via intraoropharyngeal, intranasopharyngeal, and intramuscular inoculation, and by direct contact with infected pigs. Virus Res 178:328–329PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Khomenko S, Beltrán-Alcrudo D, Rozstalnyy A, Gogin A, Kolbasov D, Pinto J, Lubroth J, Martin V (2013) African swine fever in the Russian Federation: risk factors for Europe and beyond. EMPRES WatchGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    King DP, Reid SM, Hutchings GH, Grierson SS, Wilkinson PJ, Dixon LK, Bastos AD, Drew TW (2003) Development of a TaqMan PCR assay with internal amplification control for the detection of African swine fever virus. J Virol Methods 107:53–61PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kleiboeker SB (2002) Swine fever: classical swine fever and African swine fever. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 18:431–451PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Klinkenberg D, de Bree J, Laevens H, de Jong MC (2002) Within- and between-pen transmission of Classical Swine Fever Virus: a new method to estimate the basic reproduction ratio from transmission experiments. Epidemiol Infect 128:293–299PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Laddomada A, Patta C, Oggiano A, Caccia A, Ruiu A, Cossu P, Firinu A (1994) Epidemiology of classical swine fever in Sardinia: a serological survey of wild boar and comparison with African swine fever. Vet Rec 134:183–187PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Malogolovkin A, Yelsukova A, Gallardo C, Tsybanov S, Kolbasov D (2012) Molecular characterization of African swine fever virus isolates originating from outbreaks in the Russian Federation between 2007 and 2011. Vet Microbiol 158:415–419PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    McVicar JW, Mebus CA, Becker HN, Belden RC, Gibbs EP (1981) Induced African swine fever in feral pigs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 179:441–446PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Mebus CA (1988) African swine fever. Adv Virus Res 35:251–269PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mur L, Martinez-Lopez B, Sanchez-Vizcaino JM (2012) Risk of African swine fever introduction into the European Union through transport-associated routes: returning trucks and waste from international ships and planes. BMC Vet Res 8:149PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Penrith ML, Vosloo W (2009) Review of African swine fever: transmission, spread and control. J S Afr Vet Assoc 80:58–62PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Perez J, Fernandez AI, Sierra MA, Herraez P, Fernandez A, Martin de las Mulas J (1998) Serological and immunohistochemical study of African swine fever in wild boar in Spain. Vet Rec 143:136–139PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Rahimi P, Sohrabi A, Ashrafihelan J, Edalat R, Alamdari M, Masoudi M, Mostofi S, Azadmanesh K (2010) Emergence of African swine fever virus, northwestern Iran. Emerg Infect Dis 16:1946–1948PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Rodriguez F, Fernandez A, Martin de las Mulas JP, Sierra MA, Jover A (1996) African swine fever: morphopathology of a viral haemorrhagic disease. Vet Rec 139:249–254PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Rowlands RJ, Michaud V, Heath L, Hutchings G, Oura C, Vosloo W, Dwarka R, Onashvili T, Albina E, Dixon LK (2008) African swine fever virus isolate, Georgia, 2007. Emerg Infect Dis, CDC, pp 1870–1874Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ruiz-Fons F, Segales J, Gortazar C (2008) A review of viral diseases of the European wild boar: effects of population dynamics and reservoir role. Vet J 176:158–169PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sanchez-Vizcaino JM (2006) African swine fever. Diseases of Swine. Blackwell Publishing, pp 291–298Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Takamatsu HD, Dixon LK, Alonso C, Escribano JM, Martins C, Revilla Y, Salas ML (2011) Asfarviridae. Virus taxonomy, pp 153–162Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Vynnycky E, White R (2010) An introduction to infectious disease modelling, 1st edn. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jana Pietschmann
    • 1
  • Claire Guinat
    • 5
  • Martin Beer
    • 1
  • Valery Pronin
    • 2
  • Kerstin Tauscher
    • 3
  • Anja Petrov
    • 1
  • Günther Keil
    • 4
  • Sandra Blome
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Diagnostic VirologyFriedrich-Loeffler-InstitutGreifswald-Insel RiemsGermany
  2. 2.National Research Institute for Veterinary Virology and Microbiology of RussiaPokrov, Petushki AreaRussia
  3. 3.Department of Experimental Animal Facilities and Biorisk ManagementFriedrich-Loeffler-InstitutGreifswald-Insel RiemsGermany
  4. 4.Institute of Molecular BiologyFriedrich-Loeffler-InstitutGreifswald-Insel RiemsGermany
  5. 5.Veterinary Epidemiology, Economics and Public Health GroupRoyal Veterinary CollegeHatfieldUK

Personalised recommendations