Archives of Virology

, Volume 160, Issue 4, pp 893–908 | Cite as

Human anelloviruses: an update of molecular, epidemiological and clinical aspects

  • Sonia SpandoleEmail author
  • Dănuţ Cimponeriu
  • Lavinia Mariana Berca
  • Grigore Mihăescu
Brief Review


Human torque teno viruses (TTVs) are new, emerging infectious agents, recently assigned to the family Anelloviridae. The first representative of the genus, torque teno virus (TTV), was discovered in 1997, followed by torque teno mini virus (TTMV) in 2000, and torque teno midi virus (TTMDV) in 2007. These viruses are characterized by an extremely high prevalence, with relatively uniform distribution worldwide and a high level of genomic heterogeneity, as well as an apparent pan-tropism at the host level. Although these viruses have a very high prevalence in the general population across the globe, neither their interaction with their hosts nor their direct involvement in the etiology of specific diseases are fully understood. Since their discovery, human anelloviruses, and especially TTV, have been suggested to be associated with various diseases, such as hepatitis, respiratory diseases, cancer, hematological and autoimmune disorders, with few arguments for their direct involvement. Recent studies have started to reveal interactions between TTVs and the host’s immune system, leading to new hypotheses for potential pathological mechanisms of these viruses. In this review article, we discuss the most important aspects and current status of human TTVs in order to guide future studies.


Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Umbilical Cord Blood Polycythemia Vera Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This paper was written in the framework of project PN 12 48, funded by the Romanian Ministry of Education and granted to the National Institute of Research and Development for Food Bioresources.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

705_2015_2363_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (343 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 342 kb)
705_2015_2363_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (459 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (PDF 459 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sonia Spandole
    • 1
    Email author
  • Dănuţ Cimponeriu
    • 1
  • Lavinia Mariana Berca
    • 2
  • Grigore Mihăescu
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of GeneticsUniversity of BucharestBucharestRomania
  2. 2.Molecular Biology LaboratoryNational Institute of Research and Development for Food BioresourcesBucharestRomania
  3. 3.Department of MicrobiologyUniversity of BucharestBucharestRomania

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