Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in esophageal and cervical cancers in the high incidence area for the two diseases from 2007 to 2009 in Linzhou of Henan Province, Northern China
- 346 Downloads
The etiological role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical cancer has been well established. However, it is inconclusive whether HPV plays the same role in esophageal carcinogenesis. In this study, we detected HPV infection in 145 frozen esophageal tissues, including 30 normal epithelium (ENOR), 37 dysplasia (DYS) and 78 invasive squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), and in 143 frozen cervical tissues composed of 30 normal epithelium (CNOR), 38 intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and 75 invasive squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). The patients and symptom-free subjects enrolled in this study were from a high-incidence area for both ESCC and CSCC, Linzhou City, Northern China, from 2007 to 2009. The HPV infection analysis was conducted by using an HPV GenoArray Test Kit. We found that the high-risk HPV types accounted for more than 90 % of the HPV-positive lesions of esophagus and cervix tissues. The prevalence of high-risk HPV types increased significantly during the progression of both esophageal and cervical carcinogenesis (positive rate in esophageal tissues: 33 % ENOR, 70 % in DYS and 69 % in ESCC; positive rate in cervical tissues: 27 % in CNOR, 82 % in CIN and 88 % in CSCC; P < 0.001, respectively). Infection with the high-risk HPV types increased the risk for both DYS and ESCC by 4-fold (DYS vs. ENOR: OR = 4.73, 95 %CI = 1.68-13.32; ESCC vs. ENOR: OR = 4.50, 95 %CI = 1.83-11.05) and increased the risk for both CIN and CSCC by 12-fold and 20-fold (CIN vs. CNOR: OR = 12.18, 95 %CI = 3.85-38.55; CSCC vs. CNOR: OR = 20.17, 95 %CI = 6.93-58.65), respectively. The prevalence of high-risk types in ESCC patients was lower than that in CSCC patients (P = 0.005) and was significantly associated with the degree of ESCC tumor infiltration (P = 0.001). HPV 16 was the most prevalent subtype in both esophageal and cervical tissues. Single HPV infection increased significantly along with the progression of ESCC and maintained a high level in cervical tissues, regardless of whether they were CNOR or CSCC tissues. Our results showed that infection with HPV, especially the high-risk types, was positively associated with both esophageal and cervical cancers, suggesting that HPV also plays a role in the etiology of ESCC in the high-incidence area.
KeywordsEsophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patient Cervical Tissue Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Tissue
Basal cell hyperplasia
Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia
Carcinoma in situ
Cervical squamous cell carcinoma
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma
Polymerase chain reaction
Squamous cell carcinoma
This project was funded by The 863 HighTech Key Projects (2012AA02A053, 2012AA02A209 and 2012AA02A201) and National Natural Science Foundation (81071783 and 30971133).
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- 4.Du BL (1994) Esophageal cancer. China Science and Technology Publishing House, BeijingGoogle Scholar
- 7.Gao GF, Roth MJ, Wei WQ, Abnet CC, Chen F, Lu N, Zhao FH, Li XQ, Wang GQ, Taylor PR, Pan QJ, Chen W, Dawsey SM, Qiao YL (2006) No association between HPV infection and the neoplastic progression of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: result from a cross-sectional study in a high-risk region of China. Int J Cancer 119:1354–1359PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 9.Peixoto Guimaraes D, Hsin LuS, Snijders P, Wilmotte R, Herrero R, Lenoir G, Montesano R, Meijer CJ, Walboomers J, Hainaut P (2001) Absence of association between HPV DNA, TP53 codon 72 polymorphism, and risk of oesophageal cancer in a high-risk area of China. Cancer Lett 162:231–235PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 14.Chang F, Syrjänen S, Shen Q, Cintorino M, Santopietro R, Tosi P, Syrjänen K (2000) Human papillomavirus involvement in esophageal carcinogenesis in the high-incidence area of China. A study of 700 cases by screening and type-specific in situ hybridization. Scand J Gastroenterol 35:123–130PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 17.Wang X, Tian X, Liu F, Zhao Y, Sun M, Chen D, Lu C, Wang Z, Shi X, Zhang Q, Zhang D, Shen Z, Li F, Harris CC, Cai H, Ke Y (2010) Detection of HPV DNA in esophageal cancer specimens from different regions and ethnic groups: a descriptive study. BMC Cancer 10:19PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 22.National Office for Cancer Prevention and Control of Chinese Ministry of Health (1979) Investigate for malignant tumour mortality in China. People’s Medical Publishing House Beijing, BeijingGoogle Scholar
- 24.Saslow D, Solomon D, Lawson HW, Killackey M, Kulasingam SL, Cain J, Garcia FA, Moriarty AT, Waxman AG, Wilbur DC, Wentzensen N, Downs LS Jr, Spitzer M, Moscicki AB, Franco EL, Stoler MH, Schiffman M, Castle PE, Myers ER (2012) American cancer society, American society for colposcopy and cervical pathology, and american society for clinical pathology screening guidelines for the prevention and early detection of cervical cancer. Am J Clin Pathol. 137:516–542PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 31.Tjalma WA, Fiander A, Reich O, Powell N, Nowakowski AM, Kirschner B, Koiss R, O’Leary J, Joura EA, Rosenlund M, Colau B, Schledermann D, Kukk K, Damaskou V, Repanti M, Vladareanu R, Kolomiets L, Savicheva A, Shipitsyna E, Ordi J, Molijn A, Quint W, Raillard A, Rosillon D, De Souza SC, Jenkins D, Holl K, HERACLES/SCALE Study Group (2013) Differences in human papillomavirus type distribution in high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive cervical cancer in Europe. Int J Cancer 132:854–867PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar