Archives of Virology

, Volume 159, Issue 3, pp 437–443 | Cite as

Molecular differentiation and phylogenetic analysis of the Egyptian foot-and-mouth disease virus SAT2

  • Laila I. EL-Shehawy
  • Hany I. Abu-Elnaga
  • Sonia A. Rizk
  • Ahmed S. Abd El-Kreem
  • A. A. Mohamed
  • Hossam G. Fawzy
Original Article


In February 2012, a massive new foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreak struck Egypt. In this work, one-step RT-PCR assays were used for in-house detection and differentiation of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in Egypt in this year using pan-serotypic and serotype-targeting sequence primers. FMDV SAT2 was the dominant virus in the examined isolates from the epidemic. The complete VP1 coding regions of two isolates were sequenced. The two isolates had 99.2 % sequence identity to most contemporary Egyptian SAT2 reference viruses, whereas they had 89.7-90.1 % identity to the SAT2/EGY/2/2012 isolate, which was collected from Alexandria, Egypt, and previously sequenced by WRLFMD. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Egypt had one topotype and two lineage of FMDV SAT2 in 2012. The Egyptian and the Palestinian 2012 strains were associated mainly with topotype VII, lineage SAT2/VII/Ghb-12, while the virus isolated from Alexandria Governorate belonged to the SAT2/VII/Alx-12 lineage. Topotype VII also comprised lineages that included strains isolated from Libya in 2012 and 2003. Furthermore, within the same topotype, the Egyptian SAT2/2012 isolates were related to strains from Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Eritrea, Cameroon and Nigeria. Nevertheless, more epidemiological work with neighboring countries is needed to prevent cross-border spread of disease and to reach a precise conclusion about the origin of the 2012 FMDV SAT2 emergency in the Middle East.


Gaza Strip Vesicular Lesion FMDV Serotypes Expected Band Size World Reference Laboratory 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This study is a part of the project entitled ‘molecular characterization of FMDV Egyptian strains for improvement of local produced vaccine’, ID number 1064. Science and Technology Development Fund (STDF),


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Laila I. EL-Shehawy
    • 1
  • Hany I. Abu-Elnaga
    • 1
  • Sonia A. Rizk
    • 1
  • Ahmed S. Abd El-Kreem
    • 1
  • A. A. Mohamed
    • 1
  • Hossam G. Fawzy
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Foot and Mouth DiseaseVeterinary Serum and Vaccine Research InstituteCairoEgypt

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