Archives of Virology

, Volume 158, Issue 6, pp 1287–1296 | Cite as

Antiherpetic potential of 6-bromoindirubin-3′-acetoxime (BIO-acetoxime) in human oral epithelial cells

  • Mei-Ju Hsu
  • Shan-Ling Hung
Original Article


Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) functions in the regulation of glycogen metabolism, in the cell cycle, and in immune responses and is targeted by some viruses to favor the viral life cycle. Inhibition of GSK-3 by 6-bromoindirubin-3′-acetoxime (BIO-acetoxime), a synthetic derivative of a compound from the Mediterranean mollusk Hexaplex trunculus, protects cells from varicella infection. In this study, we examined the effects of BIO-acetoxime against herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) infection in human oral epithelial cells, which represent a natural target cell type. The results revealed that BIO-acetoxime relieves HSV-1-induced cytopathic effects and apoptosis. We also found that BIO-acetoxime reduced viral yields and the expression of different classes of viral proteins. Furthermore, addition of BIO-acetoxime before, simultaneously with or after HSV-1 infection significantly reduced viral yields. Collectively, BIO-acetoxime may suppress viral gene expression and protect oral epithelial cells from HSV-1 infection. These results suggest the possible involvement of GSK-3 in HSV-1 infection.


Thymidine Kinase Viral Life Cycle Viral Yield Indirubin Oral Epithelial Cell 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This investigation was supported by the grant from Ministry of Education, Aim for the Top University Plan and by the Research Grant NSC 101-2314-B-010-033-MY2 from the National Science Council, Taiwan. The authors acknowledge the technical support provided by the Imaging Core Facility of Nanotechnology of the University System of Taiwan-National Yang-Ming University (UST-YMU), especially Pei-Jun Chen and Shu-Fen Lin for their technical support.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Oral BiologyNational Yang-Ming UniversityTaipeiTaiwan
  2. 2.Department of DentistryNational Yang-Ming UniversityTaipeiTaiwan
  3. 3.Department of StomatologyTaipei Veterans General HospitalTaipeiTaiwan

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