Archives of Virology

, Volume 157, Issue 9, pp 1807–1811 | Cite as

Prophage and antibiotic resistance profiles of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains in Iran

  • Fateh Rahimi
  • Majid BouzariEmail author
  • Mohammad Katouli
  • Mohammad R. PourshafieEmail author
Brief Report


A total of 114 isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were collected from hospitals in Tehran, Iran. A multiplex PCR was designed to examine the presence of six different prophage classes. The results showed high diversity of bacteriophages, with four different prophage types and eight prophage patterns. An important S. aureus phage coding for several virulence factors, Φ-77-like phage, was detected in 97 % of the isolates. We found a high rate of resistance of MRSA isolates to penicillin, ciprofloxacin, tobramycin and kanamycin. This is the first study showing high prevalence and diverse bacteriophage populations in MRSA strains in Iranian hospitals.


MRSA Prophage pattern Φ-77-like phage Iran 



This research was funded, in part, by an operating grant of the Dean of Research and Graduate Studies at the University of Isfahan, and a grant from the Ministry of Health of Iran, Deputy of Research and Innovation. The authors would like to thank Dr. Azar Hadadi from Tehran University of Medical Science and Dr. Hedieh Moradi from Sina Hospital for providing some of the S. aureus isolates.


  1. 1.
    Ackermann HW, DuBow MS (1987) Natural groups of bacteriophages. Viruses of procaryotes, vol 2. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USAGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bamberger DM, Boyd SE (2005) Management of Staphylococcus aureus infections. Am Fam Phys 72:2474–2481Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Boyd EF, Brussow H (2002) Common themes among bacteriophage-encoded virulence factors and the diversity among bacteriophages involved. Trends Microbiol 10:521–529PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Brussow H, Desiere F (2001) Comparative phage genomics and the evolution of Siphoviridae: insights from dairy phages. Mol Microbiol 39:213–222PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) (2006) Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing, 16th informational supplement. Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute, WayneGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) (2006) Methods for dilution antimicrobial susceptibility tests for bacteria that grow aerobically. Approved standard. M7-A7. Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute, WayneGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Deurenberg RH, Stobberingh EE (2008) The evolution of Staphylococcus aureus. Infect Genet Evol 8:747–763PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Du Z, Ruifu Y, Guo Z, Song Y, Wang J (2002) Identification of Staphylococcus aureus and determination of its methicillin resistance by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Anal Chem 74:5487–5491PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Farrant JL, Rountree PM (1953) Electron microscopy of a staphylococcal bacteriophage. J Gen Microbiol 9:288–292PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Goerke C, Pantucek R, Holtfreter S, Schulte B, Zink M, Grumann D, Broker BM, Doskar J, Wolz C (2009) Diversity of prophages in dominant Staphylococcus aureus clonal lineages. J Bacteriol 191:3462–3468PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Goerke C, Koller J, Wolz C (2006) Ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim cause phage induction and virulence modulation in Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50:171–177PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gorrill RH, Gray RA (1956) The induction of bacteriophage in staphylococci. J Gen Microbiol 14:167–173PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hoshiba H, Uchiyama J, Kato S, Ujihara T, Muraoka A, Daibata M, Wakiguchi H, Matsuzaki S (2010) Isolation and characterization of a novel Staphylococcus aureus bacteriophage, ФMR25, and its therapeutic potential. Arch Virol 155:545–552PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Japooni A, Alborzi A, Orafa F, Rasouli M, Farshad S (2004) Distribution patterns of methicillin resistance genes (mecA) in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from clinical specimens. Iran Biomed J 8:173–178Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kateete DP, Kimani CN, Katabazi FA, Okeng A, Okee MS, Nanteza A, Joloba ML, Najjuka FC (2010) Identification of Staphylococcus aureus: DNase and Mannitol salt agar improve the efficiency of the tube coagulase test. Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 9:23–29PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Loessner MJ, Gaeng S, Scherer S (1999) Evidence for a holin-like protein gene fully embedded out of frame in the endolysin gene of Staphylococcus aureus bacteriophage 187. J Bacteriol 181:4452–4460PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    MacFadin JF (2000) Biochemical tests for identification of medical bacteria. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Malachowa N, DeLeo FR (2010) Mobile genetic elements of Staphylococcus aureus. Cell Mol Life Sci 67:3057–3071PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mullan WMA (2001) Dairy science and food technology—isolation and purification of bacteriophages. Accessed: 9 April 2012. Updated June 2010
  20. 20.
    Pantucek R, Doskar J, Ruzickova V, Kasparek P, Oracova E, Kvardova V, Rosypal S (2004) Identification of bacteriophage types and their carriage in Staphylococcus aureus. Arch Virol 149:1689–1703PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Rahimi F, Bouzari M, Maleki Z, Rahimi F (2009) Antibiotic susceptibility pattern among Staphylococcus spp. with emphasis on detection of mecA gene in methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates. Iran J Clin Infect Dis 4:143–150Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    van Belkum A, Tassios PT, Dijkshoorn L, Haeggman S, Cookson B, Fry NK, Fussing V, Green J, Feil E, Gerner-Smidt P, Brisse S, Struelens M (2007) Guidelines for the validation and application of typing methods for use in bacterial epidemiology. Clin Microbiol Infect 13:1–46PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Wilson BA, Salyers AA (2003) Is the evolution of bacterial pathogens an out of body experience? Trends Microbiol 11:347–350PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Workman M, Nigro OD, Steward GF (2006) Identification of prophages in coastal water isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. J Young Invest 15:1–8Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biology, Faculty of ScienceUniversity of IsfahanIsfahanIran
  2. 2.Faculty of Science, Health and EducationUniversity of the Sunshine CoastBrisbaneAustralia
  3. 3.Department of MicrobiologyPasteur Institute of IranTehranIran

Personalised recommendations