Archives of Virology

, Volume 157, Issue 6, pp 1131–1136

Characterization of a highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus isolated from ducks in Eastern China in 2011

  • Wu Hai-bo
  • Guo Chao-tan
  • Lu Ru-feng
  • Xu Li-hua
  • Wo En-kang
  • You Jin-biao
  • Wang Yi-ting
  • Wang Qiao-gang
  • Wu Nan-ping
Brief Report


This study describes the characterization of seven H5N1 avian influenza viruses from domestic ducks in Eastern China in 2011. Phylogenetic analysis showed these viruses were closely related to an H5N1 virus circulating in wild birds in Hong Kong. Some characteristics of these viruses were similar to those of an H5N1 strain that circulated in China and Vietnam (2003-2004). The virulence of three isolates was examined in chickens and mice, and they were found to be highly pathogenic in chickens but showed low pathogenicity in mice. These results suggest that continued H5N1 surveillance in poultry should be used as an early warning system for avian influenza outbreaks.

Supplementary material

705_2012_1259_MOESM1_ESM.doc (111 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 110 kb)
705_2012_1259_MOESM2_ESM.doc (26 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOC 24 kb)


  1. 1.
    Li KS, Guan Y, Wang J, Smith GJ, Xu KM, Duan L, Rahardjo AP, Puthavathana P, Buranathai C, Nguyen TD, Estoepangestie AT, Chaisingh A, Auewarakul P, Long HT, Hanh NT, Webby RJ, Poon LL, Chen H, Shortridge KF, Yuen KY, Webster RG, Peiris JS (2004) Genesis of a highly pathogenic and potentially pandemic H5N1 influenza virus in eastern Asia. Nature 430:209–213PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    World Health Organization Global Influenza Program Surveillance Network (2005) Evolution of H5N1 avian influenza viruses in Asia. Emerg Infect Dis 11:1515–1521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Li Y, Shi J, Zhong G, Deng G, Tian G, Ge J, Zeng X, Song J, Zhao D, Liu L, Jiang Y, Guan Y, Bu Z, Chen H (2010) Continued evolution of H5N1 influenza viruses in wild birds, domestic poultry, and humans in China from 2004 to 2009. J Virol 84:8389–8397PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cumulative number of confirmed human cases of avian influenza A/(H5N1) Reported to WHO. (Accessed 27 August 2011)
  5. 5.
    Webster RG, Bean WJ, Gorman OT, Chambers TM, Kawaoka Y (1992) Evolution and ecology of influenza A viruses. Microbiol Rev 56:152–179PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kawaoka Y, Chambers TM, Sladen WL, Webster RG (1988) Is the gene pool of influenza viruses in shorebirds and gulls different from that in wild ducks? Virology 163:247–250PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cardona C, Yee K, Carpenter T (2009) Are live bird markets reservoirs of avian influenza? Poult Sci 88:856–859PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Xu X, Subbarao, Cox NJ, Guo Y (1999) Genetic characterization of the pathogenic influenza A/Goose/Guangdong/1/96 (H5N1) virus: similarity of its hemagglutinin gene to those of H5N1 viruses from the 1997 outbreaks in Hong Kong. Virology 261:15–19PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cauthen AN, Swayne DE, Schultz-Cherry S, Perdue ML, Suarez DL (2000) Continued circulation in China of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses encoding the hemagglutinin gene associated with the 1997 H5N1 outbreak in poultry and humans. J Virol 74:6592–6599PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Smith GJ, Vijaykrishna D, Ellis TM, Dyrting KC, Leung YH, Bahl J, Wong CW, Kai H, Chow MK, Duan L, Chan AS, Zhang LJ, Chen H, Luk GS, Peiris JS, Guan Y (2009) Characterization of avian influenza viruses A (H5N1) from wild birds, Hong Kong, 2004–2008. Emerg Infect Dis 15:402–407PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hu X, Liu D, Wang M, Yang L, Wang M, Zhu Q, Li L, Gao GF (2011) Clade 2.3.2 avian influenza virus (H5N1), Qinghai Lake region, China, 2009–2010. Emerg Infect Dis 17:560–562PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Chen J, Yang Z, Chen Q, Liu X, Fang F, Chang H, Li D, Chen Z (2009) Characterization of H5N1 influenza A viruses isolated from domestic green-winged teal. Virus Genes 38:66–73PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hoffmann E, Stech J, Guan Y, Webster RG, Perez DR (2001) Universal primer set for the full-length amplification of all influenza A viruses. Arch Virol 146:2275–2289PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Tamura K, Peterson D, Peterson N, Stecher G, Nei M, Kumar S (2011) MEGA5: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis using maximum likelihood, evolutionary distance, and maximum parsimony methods. Mol Biol Evol. doi:10.1093/molbev/msr121 Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bateman AC, Busch MG, Karasin AI, Bovin N, Olsen CW (2008) Amino acid 226 in the hemagglutinin of H4N6 influenza virus determines binding affinity for alpha2, 6-linked sialic acid and infectivity levels in primary swine and human respiratory epithelial cells. J Virol 82:8204–8209PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wisedchanwet T, Wongphatcharachai M, Boonyapisitsopa S, Bunpapong N, Kitikoon P, Amonsin A (2011) Genetic characterization of avian influenza subtype H4N6 and H4N9 from live bird market, Thailand. Virol J 8:131PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Nguyen DC, Uyeki TM, Jadhao S, Maines T, Shaw M, Matsuoka Y, Smith C, Rowe T, Lu X, Hall H, Xu X, Balish A, Klimov A, Tumpey TM, Swayne DE, Huynh LP, Nghiem HK, Nguyen HH, Hoang LT, Cox NJ, Katz JM (2005) Isolation and characterization of avian influenza viruses, including highly pathogenic H5N1, from poultry in live bird markets in Hanoi, Vietnam, in 2001. J Virol 79:4201–4212PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Jadhao SJ, Nguyen DC, Uyeki TM, Shaw M, Maines T, Rowe T, Smith C, Huynh LP, Nghiem HK, Nguyen DH, Nguyen HK, Nguyen HH, Hoang LT, Nguyen T, Phuong LS, Klimov A, Tumpey TM, Cox NJ, Donis RO, Matsuoka Y, Katz JM (2009) Genetic analysis of avian influenza A viruses isolated from domestic waterfowl in live-bird markets of Hanoi, Vietnam, preceding fatal H5N1 human infections in 2004. Arch Virol 154:1249–1261PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Aoki FY, Boivin G, Roberts N (2007) Influenza virus susceptibility and resistance to oseltamivir. Antivir Ther 12:603–616PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Deyde VM, Xu X, Bright RA, Shaw M, Smith CB, Zhang Y, Shu Y, Gubareva LV, Cox NJ, Klimov AI (2007) Surveillance of resistance to adamantanes among influenza A (H3N2) and A (H1N1) viruses isolated worldwide. J Infect Dis 196:249–257PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Shinya K, Hamm S, Hatta M, Ito H, Ito T, Kawaoka Y (2004) PB2 amino acid at position 627 affects replicative efficiency, but not cell tropism, of Hong Kong H5N1 influenza A viruses in mice. Virology 320:258–266PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Zhu Q, Yang H, Chen W, Cao W, Zhong G, Jiao P, Deng G, Yu K, Yang C, Bu Z, Kawaoka Y, Chen H (2008) A naturally occurring deletion in its NS gene contributes to the attenuation of an H5N1 swine influenza virus in chickens. J Virol 82:220–228PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Seo SH, Hoffmann E, Webster RG (2002) Lethal H5N1 influenza viruses escape host anti-viral cytokine responses. Nat Med 8:950–954PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Liu J, Xiao H, Lei F, Zhu Q, Qin K, Zhang XW, Zhang XL, Zhao D, Wang G, Feng Y, Ma J, Liu W, Wang J, Gao GF (2005) Highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus infection in migratory birds. Science 309:1206PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wu Hai-bo
    • 1
    • 2
  • Guo Chao-tan
    • 2
  • Lu Ru-feng
    • 3
  • Xu Li-hua
    • 4
  • Wo En-kang
    • 2
  • You Jin-biao
    • 2
  • Wang Yi-ting
    • 2
  • Wang Qiao-gang
    • 2
  • Wu Nan-ping
    • 1
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, First Affiliated Hospital, School of MedicineZhejiang UniversityHangzhouChina
  2. 2.Institute of BioengineeringZhejiang Academy of Medical SciencesHangzhouChina
  3. 3.Department of EmergencyThe First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang Chinese Medical UniversityHangzhouChina
  4. 4.Animal Husbandry and Veterinary InstituteZhejiang Academy of Agricultural ScienceHangzhouChina

Personalised recommendations