Variability in the P1 gene helps to refine phylogenetic relationships among leek yellow stripe virus isolates from garlic
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Nucleotide sequences from the P1 gene and the 5′ untranslated region of leek yellow stripe virus (LYSV), collected from several locations, were used to refine the phylogenetic relationships among the isolates. Multiple alignments revealed three distinct regions of insertions and deletions to classify LYSVs. In our phylogenetic analyses, the LYSV isolates separated into two major groups (N-type and S-type). S-type viruses had two large deletions compared to N-type viruses. Considering that the outgroup, onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV) also has the sequences corresponding to the deletions in the S-type viruses, our study shows that the sequences missing in the S-type were present in the common ancestor of the N-type and S-type. In the phylogenetic trees, we found three distinct clades of isolates, from Uruguay (U), Okinawa (O) and Spain (Sp), suggesting that LYSVs have unique evolutionary histories depending on their garlic origins. The P1 gene of LYSV is thus quite suited to reflecting viral evolution, as recently suggested for other potyviruses.
KeywordsSequence Deletion Aomori Prefecture Onion Yellow Dwarf Virus Garlic Bulb Garlic Plant
This study was partially supported by the A-STEP (AS2211387E) program of Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST). We thank Dr. Yoshihiko Shiga of Hokkaido Agricultural Laboratory for Business Development for providing garlic materials.
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