Complete genome sequences and phylogenetic analysis of hepatitis delta viruses isolated from nine Turkish patients
Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a subviral agent of hepatitis B virus (HBV), and its life cycle is dependent on HBV. It is commonly accepted that HDV has eight distinct genotypes. In this study, the complete nucleotide sequences of HDV genomes isolated from nine Turkish patients were obtained by RT-PCR using two pairs of primers that cover the entire HDV genome. PCR products were sequenced directly. The results showed that these 9 isolates were approximately 1680 base pairs in length and clustered in the genotype HDV-1 branch when phylogenetic analysis was done with the sequences together with the complete sequences of HDV genomes representing each genotype retrieved from GenBank. Analysis of a portion of the large hepatitis D antigen (L-HDAg) gene showed that sequence similarity among these Turkish isolates is between 87.4 and 97.1%, and the Turkish isolates have the most sequence similarity to HDV-1 (90.5%), while they have the least sequence similarity to HDV-3 (64.1%). Full-genome analysis indicates that the sequence similarity is between 80.7 and 95.4%, and the highest sequence similarity is 84.8% (between the Turkish isolates and HDV-1). The lowest sequence similarity is 56.4% (between the Turkish isolates and HDV-3). In conclusion, phylogenetic analysis shows that the Turkish HDV isolates belong to HDV-1.
- 10.Rizzetto M, Hadziyannis S, Hansson BG, Toukan A, Gust I (1992) Hepatitis delta virus infection in the world: epidemiological patterns and clinical expression. Gastroenterol Int 5:18–32Google Scholar
- 14.Bozdayi AM, Aslan N, Bozdayi G, Turkyilmaz AR, Sengezer T, Wend U, Erkan O, Aydemir F, Zakirhodjaev S, Orucov S, Bozkaya H, Gerlich W, Karayalcin S, Yurdaydin C, Uzunalimoglu O (2004) Molecular epidemiology of hepatitis B, C, and D viruses in Turkish patients. Arch Virol 149:2115–2129PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 18.Nakano T, Shapiro CN, Hadler SC, Casy JL, Mizokami M, Orito E, Robertson BH (2001) Characterization of hepatitis D virus genotype III among Yucpa Indians in Venezuela. Gen Virol 82:2183–2189Google Scholar