Molecular characterization and complete genome analysis of human enterovirus 71 and coxsackievirus A16 from children with hand, foot and mouth disease in Thailand during 2008-2011
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Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) has mostly been caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16). CA 16 was the most common cause of HFMD in 2010. EV71 had a high prevalence in 2008-2009 and has been identified with a higher frequency since 2011. Nearly complete genome sequences of three EV71 strains (2008-2009 strains) and two CA16 strains (2010 strains) obtained from outbreaks in Thailand in 2008 to 2010 were characterized. Based on a phylogenetic tree of the complete VP1 region, three EV71 strains grouped into the B5, C1 and C4 genotypes, and two CA16 strains grouped into the C genotype. Based on sequence analysis, nucleotide changes were found to cluster in the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) element of the 5′-untranslated region (5′-UTR). Amino acid differences identified in all strains were located in the non-structural protein. These data also provide the molecular epidemiology of EV71 and CA16 outbreaks in Thailand.
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