Archives of Virology

, 156:1691 | Cite as

Pseudorabies virus in wild swine: a global perspective

  • T. Müller
  • E. C. Hahn
  • F. Tottewitz
  • M. Kramer
  • B. G. Klupp
  • T. C. Mettenleiter
  • C. Freuling
Brief Review


Suid herpesvirus 1 (SuHV1, syn. Aujeszky’s disease virus [ADV] or pseudorabies virus [PrV]), which belongs to the family Herpesviridae, subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae, genus Varicellovirus is the causative agent of Aujeszky’s disease (AD, pseudorabies), a notifiable disease, that causes substantial economic losses to the swine industry in countries, where AD is present. Members of the family Suidae (true pigs) are the only natural hosts for PrV, although the virus can infect numerous other mammals including ruminants, carnivores and rodents. Despite the tremendous progress that has been made in controlling and eliminating PrV in domestic pigs, there is mounting evidence that PrV infections are more widespread in wild swine across the world than originally thought. Unfortunately, our understanding of the extent of PrV infections in these wild populations and of the threat to domestic swine is still fragmentary. This review aims at giving a global perspective on PrV infections in wild swine by scrutinizing the current state of knowledge concerning (i) the global occurrence of PrV infections in free-living populations of wild swine, e.g., wild boar and feral swine, (ii) the molecular characterization of wild swine PrV, (iii) infection characteristics of PrV in populations of wild swine, (iv) the risk of spillover infections to domestic pigs, (v) potential risk-mitigating measures, focusing on further research needs.


Wild Boar Classical Swine Fever African Swine Fever Virus Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Wild Boar Population 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors would like to acknowledge the anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments and suggestions, which helped to improve the manuscript. We also thank Viola Damrau from the library at FLI for her continuous support. Gratefully acknowledged is the financial support by the Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection.


  1. 1.
    Mettenleiter TC (2000) Aujeszky’s disease (pseudorabies) virus: the virus and molecular pathogenesis—State of the art, June 1999. Vet Res 31:99–115PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Fenner F, Bachman PA, Gibbs EJP (1987) Pseudorabies. In: Fenner F, Bachman PA, Gibbs EJP (eds) Veterinary virology. Academic Pr Inc., San Diego, pp 353–356Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Pensaert MB, Kluge P (1989) Pseudorabies virus (Aujeszky’s disease). In: Pensaert MB (ed) Virus infections of porcines. Elsevier Science Publishers, New York, pp 39–64Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hahn EC, Fadl-Alla B, Lichtensteiger CA (2010) Variation of Aujeszky’s disease viruses in wild swine in USA. Vet Microbiol 143:45–51PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Muller T, Batza HJ, Schluter H, Conraths FJ, Mettenleiter TC (2003) Eradication of Aujeszky’s disease in Germany. J Vet Med B Infect Dis Vet Public Health 50:207–213PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    MacDiarmid SC (2000) Aujeszky’s disease eradication in New Zealand. Aust Vet J 78:470–471PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Moynagh J (1997) Aujeszky’s disease and the European Community. Vet Microbiol 55:159–166PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Meng XJ, Lindsay DS, Sriranganathan N (2009) Wild boars as sources for infectious diseases in livestock and humans. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 364:2697–2707PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kirkpatrick CM, Kanitz CL, McCrocklin SM (1980) Possible role of wild mammals in transmission of pseudorabies to swine. J Wildl Dis 16:601–614PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Muller T, Conraths FJ, Hahn EC (2000) Pseudorabies virus infection (Aujeszky’s disease) in wild swine. Infect Dis Rev 2:27–34Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gortazar C, Vicente J, Fierro Y, Leon L, Cubero MJ, Gonzalez M (2002) Natural Aujeszky’s disease in a Spanish wild boar population. Ann N Y Acad Sci 969:210–212PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ruiz-Fons F, Segales J, Gortzar C (2008) A review of viral diseases of the European wild boar: effects of population dynamics and reservoir role. Vet J 176:158–169PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    van der Leek ML, Becker HN, Pirtle EC, Humphrey P, Adams CL, All BP, Erickson GA, Belden RC, Frankenberger WB, Gibbs EP (1993) Prevalence of pseudorabies (Aujeszky’s disease) virus antibodies in feral swine in Florida. J Wildl Dis 29:403–409PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Oliver W, Leus K (2010) Sus scrofa. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.4.10.
  15. 15.
    Scandura M, Iacolina L, Appolinio M (2011) Genetic diversity in the European wild boar Sus scrofa: phylogeography, population structure and wild x domestic hybridization. Mammal Rev 41:125–137Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Larson G, Dobney K, Albarella U, Fang M, Matisoo-Smith E, Robins J, Lowden S, Finlayson H, Brand T, Willerslev E, Rowley-Conwy P, Andersson L, Cooper A (2005) Worldwide phylogeography of wild boar reveals multiple centers of pig domestication. Science 307:1618–1621PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Nettles VF, Erickson GA (1984) Pseudorabies in wild swine. Proc Annu Meet U S Anim Health Assoc 88:505–506Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Acevedo P, Escudero MA, Munoz R, Gortazar C (2006) Factors affecting wild boar abundance across an environmental gradient in Spain. Acta Theriol 51:327–336Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Saez-Royuela C, Telleria JL (1986) The increased population of the wild boar in Europe (Sus scrofa L.). Mammal Rev 16:97–101Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gipson PS, Veatch JK, Matlack RS, Jones DP (1999) Health status of a recently discovered population of feral swine in Kansas. J Wildl Dis 35:624–627PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Clay WH (2007) Hogs gone wild. Human-Wildlife Conflicts 1:137–138Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Barrett RH, Pine DS (1980) History and status of wild pigs (Sus scrofa) in San Benito County, California. Calif Fish Game 67:105–117Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Apollonio M, Andersen R, Putman R (2010) European ungulates and their management in the 21st century. Cambridge Univ PrGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Melis C, Szafranska PA, Jedrzejewska B, Barton K (2006) Biogeographical variation in the population density of wild boar (Sus scrofa) in western Eurasia. J Biogeogr 33:803–811Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Acevedo P, Vicente J, Hofle U, Cassinello J, Ruiz-Fons F, Gortazar C (2007) Estimation of European wild boar relative abundance and aggregation: a novel method in epidemiological risk assessment. Epidemiol Infect 135:519–527PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Magnusson M (2010) Population and management models for the Swedish wild boar (Sus scrofa) (Master Thesis). Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, The Faculty of Natural Resources and Agricultural Sciences, Department of Ecology, Grimsö Wildlife Research Station, SwedenGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Gipson PS, Hlavachick B, Berger T (1998) Range expansion by wild hogs across the Central United States. Wildl Soc Bull 26:279–286Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sandfoss M (2010) A Serosurvey of Feral Pigs (Sus scrofa) in Eastern North Carolina (Master Thesis). Graduate Faculty of North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North CarolinaGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Wilson S, Doster AR, Hoffman JD, Hygnstrom SE (2009) First Record of Pseudorabies in Feral Swine in Nebraska. J Wildl Dis 45:874–876PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Nettles VF (1991) Short-and Long-term Strategies for Resolving Problems of Pseudorabies and Swine Brucellosis in Feral Swine. Proc Ann Meet U S Anim Health Assoc 95:551–556Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Jridi M, Bouzghaia H, Toma B (1996) Aujeszky’s disease in wild boar in Tunisia. Epidemiol et Sante Anim 30:99–105Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hemmatzadeh F, Alinejad A, Kharazian Moghadam M (2005) Study of infection caused by pseudorabies virus (PHV-1) in Iranian wild pigs (first report). J Facul Vet Med University Tehran 60:287–290Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ishiguro N, Nishimura M (2005) Genetic profile and serosurvey for virus infections of Japanese wild boars in Shikoku Island. J Vet Med Sc 67:563–568Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    McLaughlin A (1996) An investigation into the Aujeszky’s disease status of South Island feral pigs. Surveillance 23:22Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Pannwitz G, Freuling C, Denzin N et al (2011) A long-term serological survey on Aujeszky’s disease virus infections in wild boar in East Germany. Epidemiol Infect 1–11. doi: 10.1017/S0950268811000033
  36. 36.
    Thulke HH, Selhorst T, Muller T (2005) Pseudorabies virus infections in wild boar: data visualisation as an aid to understanding disease dynamics. Prev Vet Med 68:35–48PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Gagrcin M, Cirkovic D, Orlic D (1989) Wild pigs as reservoirs of Aujeszky`s Disease. Mikrobiologija 26:149–152Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Heinritzi K, Aigner K, Erber M, Kersjes C, Von Wangenheim B (1999) Brucellosis and Aujeszky’s disease (pseudorabies) in wild boars within an enclosure (case report). Tierarztl Prax Ausg G Grosstiere Nutztiere 27:50–55Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Schulze C, Hlinak A, Wohlsein P, Kutzer P, Muller T (2010) Spontaneous Aujeszky’s disease (pseudorabies) in European wild boars (Sus scrofa) in the federal state of Brandenburg, Germany. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr 123:359–364PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Hahn EC, Lopez R, Peirce SK, Scherba G, Ferris R, Annelli JA, Gibbs EPJ (1995) Direct isolation of Aujeszky’s disease virus from tonsils of feral swine In: Proc. 2nd Int Symp Eradication of Aujeszky’s Disease (Pseudorabies) Virus and the 2nd International Symposium on Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS). Copenhagen, Denmark, 6–10 August 1995Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Romero CH, Meade P, Santagata J, Gillis K, Lollis G, Hahn EC, Gibbs EP (1997) Genital infection and transmission of pseudorabies virus in feral swine in Florida, USA. Vet Microbiol 55:131–139PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Capua I, Fico R, Banks M, Tamba M, Calzetta G (1997) Isolation and characterisation of an Aujeszky’s disease virus naturally infecting a wild boar (Sus scrofa). Vet Microbiol 55:141–146PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Muller T, Klupp B, Zellmer R et al (1998) Characterisation of pseudorabies virus isolated from wild boar (Sus scrofa). Vet Rec 143:337–340PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Lutz W, Junghans D, Schmitz D, Muller T (2003) A long-term survey of pseudorabies virus infections in European wild boar of western Germany. Z Jagdwiss 49:130–140Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Muller T, Klupp BG, Freuling C et al (2010) Characterization of pseudorabies virus of wild boar origin from Europe. Epidemiol Infect 138:1590–1600PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Romero CH, Meade PN, Homer BL, Shultz JE, Lollis G (2003) Potential sites of virus latency associated with indigenous pseudorabies viruses in feral swine. J Wildl Dis 39:567–575PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Toma B, Dufour B (2004) Transmission de la maladie d’Aujeszky des sangliers sauvages aux suidés domestiques. Epidémiol et Santé Anim 45:115–119Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Huberty A (2011) Luxembourg-immediate notification. OIE, ParisGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Cay AB, Letellier C (2009) Isolation of Aujeszky’s disease virus from two hunting dogs in Belgium after hunting wild boars. Vlaam Diergeneeskd Tijdschr 78:194–195Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Thaller D, Bilek A, Revilla-Fernandez S et al (2006) Diagnosis of Aujeszky’s disease in a dog in Austria. Wien Tierarztl Monatsschr 93:62–67Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Wodak E (2011) Aujeszky’sche Krankheit beim Wildschwein—Diagnostik und bisherige Ergebnisse. In: Die Aujeszky’sche Krankheit beim Hund und Wildschwein in Österreich, AGES, 02.02.2011,
  52. 52.
    Glass CM, McLean RG, Katz JB et al (1994) Isolation of pseudorabies (Aujeszky’s disease) virus from a Florida panther. J Wildl Dis 30:180–184PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Haddane B, Essalhi A (1998) An outbreak of Aujezky’s disease in the hunting dog (Lycaon Pictus). In: European Association of Zoo- and Wildlife Veterinarians (EAZWV) Second scientific meeting, May 21–24, 1998, CHESTER, United KingdomGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Vicente J, Ruiz-Fons F, Vidal D et al (2005) Serosurvey of Aujeszky’s disease virus infection in European wild boar in Spain. Vet Rec 156:408–412PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Herrmann S, Heppner B, Ludwig H (1984) Pseudorabies viruses from clinical outbreaks and latent infections grouped into four major genome types.In: Wittmann G, Gaskell, RM, Rziha HJ (eds) Latent Herpesvirus infections in veteirnary medicine. Curr Top Vet Med Anim Sci 27:387–401Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Christensen LS (1995) The population biology of suid herpesvirus 1. APMIS Suppl 48(1–48):1–48PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Capua I, Casaccia C, Calzetta G, Caporale V (1997) Characterisation of Aujeszky’s disease viruses isolated from domestic animals and from a wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Italy between 1972 and 1995. Vet Microbiol 57:143–149PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Hahn EC, Peirce SK, Gibbs EP (1996) Characterization of Aujeszky`s Disease Virus Isolates From Feral Swine. 14th IPVS Congress, Bologna, Italy, 7–10 JulyGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Goldberg TL, Wiegel RM, Hahn EC, Scherba G (2001) Comparative utility of restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and gene sequencing to the molecular epidemiological investigation of a viral outbreak. Epidemiol Infect 126:415–424PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Ishikawa K, Tsutsui M, Taguchi K, Saitoh A, Muramatsu M (1996) Sequence variation of the gC gene among pseudorabies virus strains. Vet Microbiol 49:267–272PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Fonseca AA, Camargos MF, de Oliveira AM et al (2010) Molecular epidemiology of Brazilian pseudorabies viral isolates. Vet Microbiol 141:238–245PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Tozzini F, Poli A, Della CG (1982) Experimental infection of European wild swine (Sus scrofa L.) with pseudorabies virus. J Wildl Dis 18:425–428PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Hahn EC, Page GR, Hahn PS, Gillis KD, Romero C, Annelli JA, Gibbs EP (1997) Mechanisms of transmission of Aujeszky’s disease virus originating from feral swine in the USA. Vet Microbiol 55:123–130PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Müller T, Teuffert J, Zellmer R, Conraths FJ (2001) Experimental infection of European wild boars and domestic pigs with pseudorabies viruses with differing virulence. Am J Vet Res 62:252–258PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Page GR, Wang FI, Hahn EC (1992) Interaction of pseudorabies virus with porcine pheripheral blood lymphocytes. J leukoc biol 52:441–448PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Müller T, Teuffert J, Ziedler K, Possardt C, Kramer M, Staubach C, Conraths FJ (1998) Pseudorabies in the European wild boar from eastern Germany. J Wildl Dis 34:251–258PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Pirtle EC, Sacks JM, Nettles VF, Rollor EA (1989) Prevalence and transmission of pseudorabies virus in an isolated population of feral swine. J Wildl Dis 25:605–607PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Lari A, Lorenzi D, Nigrelli D, Brocchi E, Faccini S, Poli A (2006) Pseudorabies virus in European wild boar from Central Italy. J Wildl Dis 42:319–324PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Czaplicki G, Dufey J, Saegerman C (2006) Is the Walloon European Wild boar a potential reservoir of Pseudorabies virus for porcine live stock? Epidemiol et Sante Anim 49:89–101Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Müller T, Teuffert J, Staubach C, Selhorst T, Depner KR (2005) Long-term studies on maternal immunity for Aujeszky’s disease and classical swine fever in wild boar piglets. J Vet Med B Infect Dis Vet Public Health 52:432–436PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Romero CH, Meade PN, Shultz JE, Chung HY, Gibbs EP, Hahn EC, Lollis G (2001) Venereal transmission of pseudorabies viruses indigenous to feral swine. J Wildl Dis 37:289–296PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Delgado-Acevedo J, Zamorano A, DeYoung RW, Campbell TA, Hewitt DG, Long DB (2010) Promiscuous mating in feral pigs (Sus scrofa) from Texas, USA. Wildl Res 37:539–546Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Donaldson AI (1983) Experimental Aujeszky’s disease in pigs: Excretion, survival and transmission of the virus. Vet Rec 113:490–494PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Hartley M (2010) Qualitative risk assessment of the role of the feral wild boar (Sus scrofa) in the likelihood of incursion and the impacts on effective disease control of selected exotic diseases in England. Eur J Wildl Res 56:401–410Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Wyckoff AC, Henke SE, Campbell T, Hewitt DG, Vercauteren K (2009) Feral swine contact with domestic swine: a serologic survey and assessment of potential for disease transmission. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 45(2):422–429PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Bronner A, Rose N, Pol F, Le Potier MF (2010) Bilan de la surveillance de la maladie d’Aujeszky en 2009: renforcement de la surveillance événementielle et allègement de la surveillance sérologique. Bull épidémiol Santé animal aliment 40:38–41Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    OIE (2004) Czech Republic. In: World Animal Health 2004. Reports on Animal Health Status and methods for disease control and prevention. OIE, Paris, pp 121–123Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Leifer I, Hoffmann B, Hoper D et al (2010) Molecular epidemiology of current classical swine fever virus isolates of wild boar in Germany. J Gen Virol 91:2687–2697PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    OIE (2009) Chapter 8.2. Aujeszky’s disease. Terrestrial Animal Health Code. OIE, ParisGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Kaden V, Lange E, Fischer U, Strebelow G (2000) Oral immunisation of wild boar against classical swine fever: evaluation of the first field study in Germany. Vet Microbiol 73:239–252PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Ruiz-Fons F, Rodríguez O, Mateu E, Vidal D, Gortázar C (2008) Antibody response of wild boar (Sus scrofa) piglets vaccinated against Aujeszky’s disease virus. Vet Rec 162:484–485PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Teuffert J, Muller T, Ziller M, Selhorst T (2005) Proposal to change the sampling scheme to control the Aujeszky’s disease (AD). Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr 112:286–294PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    USDA (2005) Feral/wild pigs: Potential problems for farmers and hunters. United States Department of AgricultureGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Cannon RM, Roe RT (1982) Livestock disease surveys—a field manual for veterinarians. Australian Bureau for animal Health, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Köppel C, Knopf L, Ryser MP, Miserez R, Thur B, Stark KDC (2007) Serosurveillance for selected infectious disease agents in wild boars (Sus scrofa) and outdoor pigs in Switzerland. Eur J Wildl Res 53:212–220Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Ruiz-Fons F, Vidal D, Vicente J, Acevedo P, Fernandez-de-Mera IG, Montoro V, Gortazar C (2008) Epidemiological risk factors of Aujeszky’s disease in wild boars (Sus scrofa) and domestic pigs in Spain. Eur J Wildl Res 54:549–555Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Zupancic Z, Jukic B, Lojkic M, Cac Z, Jemersic L, Staresina V (2002) Prevalence of antibodies to classical swine fever, Aujeszky’s disease, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome, and bovine viral diarrhoea viruses in wild boars in Croatia. J Vet Med B Infect Dis Vet Public Health 49:253–256PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Toncic J, Sostaric B, Vickovic I, Tarnaj I (2006) Health and genetic status of the European wild boar in Croatia. Radovi, Sumarski Institut Jastrebarsko, pp 223–236Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Sedlak K, Bartova E, Machova J (2008) Antibodies to selected viral disease agents in wild boars from the Czech republic. J Wildl Dis 44:777–780PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Barrat J, Blancou J, Chastel C et al (1985) Enquetes serologique des laboratoires des services veterinaires sur les maladies infectieuses de quelques mammiferes sauvages en France. Bull Lab Vet 19–20:7–14Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Baradel JM, Barrat J, Blancou J et al (1988) Results of a serological survey of wild mammals in France. Rev Sci Tech Off Int Epiz 7:873–883Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Albina E, Mesplede A, Chenut G, Le Potier MF, Bourbao G, Le Gal S, Leforban Y (2000) A serological survey on classical swine fever (CSF), Aujeszky’s disease (AD) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus infections in French wild boars from 1991 to 1998. Vet Microbiol 77:43–57PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Rossi S, Hars J, Garin-Bastuji B et al (2008) Résultats de l’enquête nationale sérologique menée chez le sanglier sauvage (2000–2004). Bull Epidemiol Afssa/DGAI 29:5–7Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Dedek J, Loepelmann H, Kokles R (1989) Ergebnisse flächendeckender serologischer Untersuchungen beim Schwarzwild (Sus Scrofa) in einem Bezirk der DDR. Verh Ber 31. Intern Symp Erkrank Zoo- und Wildtiere, Dortmund, pp 309–314Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Dahle J, Patzelt T, Schagemann G, Liess B (1993) Antibody Prevalence of Hog-Cholera, Bovine Viral Diarrhea and Aujeszkys-Disease Virus in Wild Boars in Northern Germany. Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr 100:330–333PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Oslage U, Dahle J, Muller T, Kramer M, Beier D, Liess B (1994) Antibody Prevalence of Hog-Cholera, Aujeszkys-Disease and the Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in Wild Boar in the Federal States of Sachsen-Anhalt and Brandenburg (Germany). Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr 101:33–38PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Lutz W, Wurm R (1996) Serological investigations to demonstrate the presence of antibodies to the viruses causing Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome, Aujeszky’s Disease, Hog cholera, and Porcine Parvovirus among wild boar (Sus scrofa, L, 1758) in Northrhine-Westfalia. Z Jagdwiss 42:123–133Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Kaden V, Lange E, Hanel A et al (2009) Retrospective serological survey on selected viral pathogens in wild boar populations in Germany. Eur J Wildl Res 55:153–159Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Giovannini A, Cancellotti FM, Turilli C, Randi E (1988) Serological investigations for some bacterial and viral pathogens in fallow deer (Cervus dama) and wild boar (Sus scrofa) of the San Rossore Preserve, Tuscany, Italy. J Wildl Dis 24:127–132PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Oggiano A, Patta C, Laddomada A, Caccia A (1991) Epidemiological Survey of Aujeszky`s Disease in Wild Boars in Sardinia. Atti Della Societa Italiana Delle Scienze Veterinairie XLV:1157–1161Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Oggiano A, Sarria A, Cabras P, Manca AF, Madrau P, Dci Guidici S (1997) Epidemiological Survey of Aujeszky`s Disease in free Ranging Pigs of Sardinia. Atti Della Societa Italiana Delle Scienze Veterinarie LI:305–306Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Firinu A, Scarano C (1988) African swine fever and classical swine fever (hog cholgera) among wild boar in Sardinia. Rev Sci Tech Off Int Epi 7:901–908Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Montagnaro S, Sasso S, De Martino L et al (2010) Prevalence of Antibodies to Selected Viral and Bacterial Pathogens in Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) in Campania Region, Italy. J Wildl Dis 46:316–319PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Ercolini C, Ferrari A, Fisichella S, Guerci LP, Mandola ML (1995) Serological survey of wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Liguria, Italy. IBEX J M E 3:83–84Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Guberti V, Ferrari G, Fenati M, Maroc MA, Pasquali T (2002) Pseudorabies in wild boar. In: Proc 4th Meet Eur Assoc Zoo- and Wildl Veterinarians (EAZWV)Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Lelesius R, Sereika V, Zienius D, Michalskiene I (2006) Serosurvey of wild boar population for porcine parvovirus and other selected infectious diseases in Lithuania. Bull Vet Instulawy 50:143–147Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Cromwijk WAJ (1995) Serological Investigation on Wild Swine in the Veluwe Region. Tijdschr Diergeneeskd 120:364–365PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Elbers ARW, Braamskamp J, Dekkers LJM, Voets R, Duinhof T, Hunneman WA, Stegeman JA (2000) Aujeszky’s disease virus eradication campaign successfully heading for last stage in the Netherlands. Vet Q 22:103–107PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Elbers ARW, Dekkers LJM, van der Giessen JWB (2000) Sero-surveillance of wild boar in the Netherlands, 1996–1999. Rev Sci Tech Off Int Epiz 19:848–854Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Dekkers LJM, Elbers ARW (2000) Sero-surveillance of notifiable diseases in wild boar in the Netherlands. Tijdschr Diergeneeskd 125:2–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Elbers ARW, Dekkers LJM, Spek GJ, Steinbusch LJM, van Exsel ACA (2001) Sero-monitoring of notifiable diseases in wild boar in the Netherlands 1999–2001. Tijdschr Diergeneeskd 126:779–781PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Lipowski A, Mokrzycka A, Pejsak Z (2002) Seroprevalence of Aujeszky’s disease in Poland in the years 1998–2000. Med Weter 58:35–39Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Lipowski A, Pejsak Z (2002) Antibody prevalence of pseudorabies virus in feral pigs in Poland. In: Proceedings of the 17th IPVS Conrgress, p 223Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Vuta V, Barboi G, Olvedi I et al (2009) The presence of antibodies tot Aujeszkys Disease, bovine viral diarrhoea and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome in wild boars, preliminary data. Rev Rom Med Vet 19:75–81Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Shcherbakov AV, Kukushkin SA, Timina AM et al (2007) Monitoring of infectious diseases among wild boars. Vopr Virusol 52:29–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Kukushkin S, Baborenko E, Baybikov T, Mikhalishin V, Domskiy I (2009) Seroprevalence of antibodies to main porcine infectious pathogens in wild boar in some regions of Russia. Acta Silv Lignaria Hung 5:147–152Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Vengust G, Valencak Z, Bidovec A (2005) Presence of antibodies against Aujeszky’s disease virus in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Slovenia. J Wildl Dis 41:800–802PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Vengust G, Valencak Z, Bidovec A (2006) A serological survey of selected pathogens in wild boar in Slovenia. J Vet Med B Infect Dis Vet Public Health 53:24–27PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Food Slovenia (2010) Information on the Aujeszky’s Disease Situation, Slovenia. Presentation at the SCfCAH meeting, Brussels, 1-2 June 2010 http://eceuropaeu/food/committees/regulatory/scfcah/animal_health/presentations/201006102_ad_sloveniapdf
  120. 120.
    Vicente J, Leon-Vizcaino L, Gortazar C, Jose Cubero M, Gonzalez M, Martin-Atance P (2002) Antibodies to selected viral and bacterial pathogens in European wild boars from southcentral Spain. J Wildl Dis 38:649–652PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Ruiz-Fons F, Vicente J, Vidal D et al (2006) Seroprevalence of six reproductive pathogens in European wild boar (Sus scrofa) from Spain: The effect on wild boar female reproductive performance. Theriogenology 65:731–743PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Ruiz-Fons F, Vidal D, Hofle U, Vicente J, Gortazar C (2007) Aujeszky’s disease virus infection patterns in European wild boar. Vet Microbiol 120:241–250PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Closa-Sebastia F, Casas-Diaz E, Cuenca R, Lavin S, Mentaberre G, Marco I (2010) Brucella species antibodies and isolation in wild boar in north-east Spain. Vet Rec 167:826–828PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    National Veterinary Institute (SVA) (2007) Aujeszky’s disease. In: Surveillance and control programmes Sweden 2006. Uppsala, p 34Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    National Veterinary Institute (SVA) (2008) Aujeszky’s disease. In: Surveillance and control programmes Sweden 2007. Uppsala, p 39Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    National Veterinary Institute (SVA) (2009) Aujeszky’s disease. In: Surveillance and control programmes: Domestic and wild animals in Sweden 2008. Uppsala, p 41Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    National Veterinary Institute (SVA) (2010) Aujeszky’s disease. In: Surveillance of zoonotic and other animal disease agents in Sweden 2009. Uppsala, pp 12–13Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Leuenberger R, Boujon P, Thur B, Miserez R, Garin-Bastuji B, Rufenacht J, Stark KDC (2007) Prevalence of classical swine fever, Aujeszky’s disease and brucellosis in a population of wild boar in Switzerland. Vet Rec 160:362–368PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Koppel C, Knopf L, Leuenberger R, Thur B, Ryser MP, Miserez R, Stark KDC (2006) Infection status of wild boar in Switzerland: a risk for the swine industry? Proc 19th IPVS Conrgess, KopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Clark RK, Jessup DA, Hird DW, Ruppanner R, Meyer ME (1983) Serologic Survey of California Wild Hogs for Antibodies Against Selected Zoonotic Disease Agents. J Am Vet Med Assoc 183:1248–1251PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Corn JL, Swiderek PK, Blackburn BO, Erickson GA, Thiermann AB, Nettles VF (1986) Survey of Selected Diseases in Wild Swine in Texas. J Am Vet Med Assoc 189:1029–1032PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Corn JL, Lee RM, Erickson GA, Murphy CD (1987) Serologic Survey for Evidence of Exposure to Vesicular Stomatitis-Virus, Pseudorabies Virus, Brucellosis and Leptospirosis in Collared Peccaries from Arizona. J Wildl Dis 23:551–557PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Corn JL, Stallknecht DE, Mechlin NM, Luttrell MP, Fischer JR (2004) Persistence of pseudorabies virus in Feral Swine Populations. J Wildl Dis 40:307–310PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    New JCJ, Delozier K, Barton CE, Morris PJ, Potgieter LN (1994) A serologic survey of selected viral and bacterial diseases of European wild hogs, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, USA. J Wildl Dis 30:103–106PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Saliki JT, Rodgers SJ, Eskew G (1998) Serosurvey of selected viral and bacterial diseases in wild swine from Oklahoma. J Wildl Dis 34:834–838PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Gresham CS, Gresham CA, Duffy MJ, Faulkner CT, Patton S (2002) Increased prevalence of Brucella suis and pseudorabies virus antibodies in adults of an isolated feral swine population in coastal South Carolina. J Wildl Dis 38:653–656PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Wyckoff AC, Henke SE, Campbell T, Hewitt DG, Vercauteren K et al (2005) Preliminary serologic survey of selected diseases and movements of feral swine in Texas. Proc 11th Wildl Damage Manag Conf 11:23–32Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Campbell TA, DeYoung RW, Wehland EM (2008) Feral swine exposure to selected viral and bacterial pathogens in southern Texas. J Swine Health Prod 16:312–315Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Cavendish T, Stiver W, Delozier KE (2008) Disease surveillance of wild hogs in Great Smoky Mountains National Park - a focus on pseudorabies. In: Vantassel SM (ed) Proc Wildl Damage Manag Conf. National Conference on Feral Hogs. Internet Center for National Conference on Feral Hogs, Missouri, Department of Conservation, St. Louis, USAGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Corn JL, Cumbee JC, Barfoot R, Erickson GA (2009) Pathogen Exposure in Feral Swine Populations Geographically Associated with High Densities of Transitional Swine Premises and Commercial Swine Production. J Wildl Dis 45:713–721PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Cunha EMS, Nassar AFC, Lara MCCS, Bersano JG, Villalobos EMC, Oliveira JCF (2006) Antibodies against pseudorabies virus in feral swine in southeast Brazil. Arq Bras Med Vet Zoo 58:462–466Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. Müller
    • 1
  • E. C. Hahn
    • 2
  • F. Tottewitz
    • 3
  • M. Kramer
    • 1
  • B. G. Klupp
    • 4
  • T. C. Mettenleiter
    • 4
  • C. Freuling
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of EpidemiologyFriedrich-Loeffler-Institut (FLI), Federal Research Institute for Animal HealthWusterhausenGermany
  2. 2.Department of Veterinary PathobiologyUniversity of IllinoisUrbana-ChampaignUSA
  3. 3.Institute for Forest Ecology and Forest InventoryJohann Heinrich von Thünen-InstitutEberswaldeGermany
  4. 4.Institute of Molecular BiologyFriedrich-Loeffler-Institut (FLI), Federal Research Institute for Animal HealthGreifswald-Insel RiemsGermany

Personalised recommendations