Archives of Virology

, Volume 156, Issue 6, pp 1041–1044 | Cite as

Lack of phylogenetic evidence that the Shimen strain is the parental strain of the lapinized Chinese strain (C-strain) vaccine against classical swine fever

  • Hongyan Xia
  • Niklas Wahlberg
  • Hua-Ji Qiu
  • Frederik Widén
  • Sándor Belák
  • Lihong LiuEmail author
Original Article


The Chinese hog cholera lapinized virus (HCLV), also called the “Chinese strain” or “C-strain” of classical swine fever virus (CSFV), was developed in China in the 1950s. There are uncertainties about the genetic heterogeneity and origin of this vaccine virus. The objectives of this study were to investigate the genetic heterogeneity of the C-strain, for which nucleotide sequences have been submitted to GenBank from different laboratories, and to determine whether there is any evidence to support the hypothesis that the C-strain originated from the Shimen strain. Analysis of 150 nearly complete E2 gene sequences revealed that the C-strain clade includes several HCLV vaccine strains, cell-culture-adapted Riems strains, and viruses isolated from diseased pigs. The whole-genome phylogeny indicated that the ancestor of the C-strain was only distantly related to the Shimen strain. Therefore, there was no phylogenetic evidence to support the Shimen-origin hypothesis.


Vaccine Virus Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus Classical Swine Fever Virus Classical Swine Fever Bayesian Inference Analysis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



We are grateful to Prof. Mészáros, Veterinary Research Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary, for his fruitful comments on the manuscript. The work was supported by the Award of Excellence (Excellensbidrag) provided to SB by the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Sweden.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hongyan Xia
    • 1
    • 2
  • Niklas Wahlberg
    • 3
  • Hua-Ji Qiu
    • 4
  • Frederik Widén
    • 2
  • Sándor Belák
    • 1
    • 2
  • Lihong Liu
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Biomedical Sciences and Veterinary Public HealthSwedish University of Agricultural SciencesUppsalaSweden
  2. 2.Joint R&D Division, Department of Virology, Immunobiology and Parasitology, The National Veterinary Institute (SVA)The Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU)UppsalaSweden
  3. 3.Laboratory of Genetics, Department of BiologyUniversity of TurkuTurkuFinland
  4. 4.Division of Swine Infectious Diseases, National Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research InstituteThe Chinese Academy of Agricultural SciencesHarbinPeople’s Republic of China

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