Archives of Virology

, Volume 156, Issue 5, pp 817–826 | Cite as

Molecular epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes A and O with emphasis on Korean isolates: temporal and spatial dynamics

  • Sook Hee Yoon
  • Kwang-Nyeong Lee
  • Jong-Hyeon Park
  • Heebal Kim
Original Article


We determined complete 1D gene sequences for one serotype A and seven additional serotype O Korean foot-and-mouth disease viruses (FMDV) and then analyzed them together with published sequences for 180 type A and 300 type O isolates from throughout the world using a Bayesian coalescent approach. Here, Korean serotype A virus was linked with those from Laos. Korean serotype O viruses were divided into three clades and were closely related to isolates from Japan, Thailand, the UK, France, Ireland, South Africa, and Singapore, as well as Laos. There was no apparent correlation between time, country, or host species and the evolution of global FMDVs. Additionally, our results showed that purifying selection acts on the overall 1D sequences and there was no evidence of recombination among the FMDV sequences. The evolutionary rates were 5.77 × 10−3 substitutions/site/year for serotype A and 4.81 × 10−3 substitutions/site/year for serotype O. Serotype A viruses diverged approximately 110 years ago, while serotype O isolates segregated approximately 127 years before the present. In both serotype isolates, the effective number of infections remained constant until the late 1990 s, after which the virus population size underwent a rapid, sharp decline until the present.


Bayesian Skyline Plot Korean Isolate Amino Acid Sequence Level High Probability Density Maximum Clade Credibility Tree 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This study was supported by a grant from the Rural Development Administration of Korea.

Supplementary material

705_2011_921_MOESM1_ESM.doc (168 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 168 kb)
705_2011_921_MOESM2_ESM.doc (296 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOC 295 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sook Hee Yoon
    • 1
  • Kwang-Nyeong Lee
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jong-Hyeon Park
    • 2
  • Heebal Kim
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Agricultural Biotechnology and Research Institute for Agriculture and Life Sciences Seoul National UniversitySeoulRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.National Veterinary Research and Quarantine ServiceAnyangRepublic of Korea

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