Archives of Virology

, Volume 156, Issue 5, pp 759–767 | Cite as

Pandemic H1N1 influenza virus causes a stronger inflammatory response than seasonal H1N1 influenza virus in ferrets

  • Young Myong Kang
  • Byung Min Song
  • Joo Sub Lee
  • Hyun Soo Kim
  • Sang Heui SeoEmail author
Original Article


A 2009 H1N1 influenza virus pandemic, which had its origin in swine, caused severe illness and mortality in humans. Inflammatory responses may be responsible for pathogenesis caused by infection with influenza viruses. To better understand the pathogenic mechanism, clinical signs and inflammatory responses in ferrets infected with the pandemic H1N1 were compared with those caused by seasonal H1N1 influenza virus. Ferrets infected with the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus displayed higher body temperatures, greater reduction in body weight, and higher viral titers in the tracheae and lungs. Levels of inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-6, interferon-alpha, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, were higher in the lungs of ferrets infected with the 2009 pandemic H1N1. The data support the idea that increased pathogenesis caused by the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus may have been partially mediated by a higher induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the lungs of affected humans or animals.


Influenza Virus Avian Influenza Virus H1N1 Influenza Virus Pandemic H1N1 Swine Influenza Virus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This study was supported in part by a grant (A084411) from the Korea Healthcare Technology R&D Project, Ministry for Health, Welfare & Family Affairs, Republic of Korea. We wish to thank HARRISCO, an English editing company, for help editing the manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Young Myong Kang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Byung Min Song
    • 1
    • 2
  • Joo Sub Lee
    • 1
    • 2
  • Hyun Soo Kim
    • 3
  • Sang Heui Seo
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Laboratory of Influenza Research, College of Veterinary MedicineChungnam National UniversityDaejeonKorea
  2. 2.Institute of Influenza Research, College of Veterinary MedicineChungnam National UniversityDaejeonKorea
  3. 3.Laboratory of Public Health, College of Veterinary MedicineChungnam National UniversityDaejeonKorea

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