Archives of Virology

, Volume 156, Issue 1, pp 121–124 | Cite as

The emergence of genotypes 3 and 4 hepatitis E virus in swine and humans: a phylogenetic perspective

  • Hongyan Xia
  • Niklas Wahlberg
  • Sándor Belák
  • X. J. Meng
  • Lihong Liu
Brief Report


To investigate whether there is any phylogenetic evidence to support the hypothesis that swine is the natural host of HEV genotypes 3 and 4, Bayesian analysis of 80 full-length genomic sequences of HEV was performed. The results showed that the strains of genotypes 3 and 4 from swine are paraphyletic with regard to strains of human origin, which are thus phylogenetically nested among the swine strains. Recognition of HEV genotypes 3 and 4 as viruses from swine or swine HEV can provide an evolutionary explanation to the observation of cross-species infection by genotypes 3 and 4 HEV.


HEV Evolution Molecular epidemiology Phylogeny 



The work was supported by the Award of Excellence (Excellensbidrag) provided to SB by the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU). NW wishes to acknowledge support from the Academy of Finland.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hongyan Xia
    • 1
    • 2
  • Niklas Wahlberg
    • 3
  • Sándor Belák
    • 1
    • 2
  • X. J. Meng
    • 4
  • Lihong Liu
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Biomedical Sciences and Veterinary Public HealthSwedish University of Agricultural SciencesUppsalaSweden
  2. 2.Joint R&D Division in Virology, The National Veterinary InstituteSwedish University of Agricultural SciencesUppsalaSweden
  3. 3.Laboratory of Genetics, Department of BiologyUniversity of TurkuTurkuFinland
  4. 4.College of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology, Center for Molecular Medicine and Infectious DiseasesVirginia Polytechnic Institute and State UniversityBlacksburgUSA

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