Archives of Virology

, Volume 155, Issue 10, pp 1625–1630 | Cite as

Co-circulation of two extremely divergent serotype SAT 2 lineages in Kenya highlights challenges to foot-and-mouth disease control

  • A. K. Sangula
  • G. J. Belsham
  • V. B. Muwanika
  • R. Heller
  • S. N. Balinda
  • H. R. Siegismund
Original Article


Amongst the SAT serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), the SAT 2 serotype is the most widely distributed throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Kenyan serotype SAT 2 viruses have been reported to display the highest genetic diversity for the serotype globally. This complicates diagnosis and control, and it is essential that patterns of virus circulation are known in order to overcome these difficulties. This study was undertaken to establish patterns of evolution of FMDV serotype SAT 2 in Kenya using complete VP1 coding sequences in a dataset of 65 sequences from Africa, collected over a period of 50 years. Two highly divergent lineages were observed to co-circulate, and occasional trans-boundary spread was inferred, emphasizing the value of constant monitoring and characterization of field strains for improved diagnosis and appropriate vaccine application as well as the need for regional approaches to control.



We sincerely thank the Director of Veterinary Services, Kenya, for providing the virus isolates used in the study. Dr Sabenzia Wekesa is thanked for the information on the isolates. Teresa Kenduiywo, William Birgen and Eugene Arinaitwe are appreciated for technical assistance. Part of this work was carried out by using the resources of the Computational Biology Service Unit from Cornell University, which is partially funded by Microsoft Corporation. This work was supported by the Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA) under the Livestock-Wildlife Diseases in East Africa Project.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. K. Sangula
    • 1
    • 4
  • G. J. Belsham
    • 2
  • V. B. Muwanika
    • 1
  • R. Heller
    • 3
  • S. N. Balinda
    • 1
  • H. R. Siegismund
    • 3
  1. 1.Molecular Biology Laboratory, Institute of Environment and Natural ResourcesMakerere UniversityKampalaUganda
  2. 2.National Veterinary InstituteTechnical University of DenmarkKalvehaveDenmark
  3. 3.Department of BiologyUniversity of CopenhagenCopenhagen NDenmark
  4. 4.Foot-and-Mouth Disease LaboratoryNairobiKenya

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