Co-circulation of two extremely divergent serotype SAT 2 lineages in Kenya highlights challenges to foot-and-mouth disease control
- 147 Downloads
Amongst the SAT serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), the SAT 2 serotype is the most widely distributed throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Kenyan serotype SAT 2 viruses have been reported to display the highest genetic diversity for the serotype globally. This complicates diagnosis and control, and it is essential that patterns of virus circulation are known in order to overcome these difficulties. This study was undertaken to establish patterns of evolution of FMDV serotype SAT 2 in Kenya using complete VP1 coding sequences in a dataset of 65 sequences from Africa, collected over a period of 50 years. Two highly divergent lineages were observed to co-circulate, and occasional trans-boundary spread was inferred, emphasizing the value of constant monitoring and characterization of field strains for improved diagnosis and appropriate vaccine application as well as the need for regional approaches to control.
We sincerely thank the Director of Veterinary Services, Kenya, for providing the virus isolates used in the study. Dr Sabenzia Wekesa is thanked for the information on the isolates. Teresa Kenduiywo, William Birgen and Eugene Arinaitwe are appreciated for technical assistance. Part of this work was carried out by using the resources of the Computational Biology Service Unit from Cornell University, which is partially funded by Microsoft Corporation. This work was supported by the Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA) under the Livestock-Wildlife Diseases in East Africa Project.
- 3.Balinda SN, Belsham GJ, Masembe C, Sangula AK, Siegismund HR, Muwanika VB (2009) Molecular characterization of SAT 2 foot-and-mouth disease virus from post-outbreak slaughtered animals: implications for disease control in Uganda. Epidemiol Infect. doi: 10.1017/S0950268809991427
- 6.Bronsvoort BMDC, Parida S, Handel I, McFarland S, Fleming L, Hamblin P, Kock R (2008) Serological survey for foot-and-mouth disease virus in wildlife in eastern Africa and estimation of test parameters of a nonstructural protein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for buffalo. Clin Vaccine Immunol 15:1003–1011CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 9.Drummond AJ, Ashton B, Cheung M, Heled J, Kearse M, Moir R, Stones-Havas S, Thierer T, Wilson A (2009) Geneious v4.6. http://www.geneious.com/
- 11.Knowles NJ, Samuel AR (1995) Polymerase chain reaction amplification and cycle sequencing of the 1D gene of foot-and-mouth disease viruses Session of the research group of the standing technical committee of the European commission for the control of foot-and-mouth disease. FAO, Rome, 19–22 September 1994, Vienna, AustriaGoogle Scholar
- 15.Ndiritu CG (1984) Foot and mouth disease virus antigenic variation and its implications on vaccines. Kenya Vet 8:14–19Google Scholar
- 16.Nylander JAA (2004) MrModeltest v2. Program distributed by the author Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala UniversityGoogle Scholar
- 24.Swofford DL (2003) PAUP*. Phylogenetic analysis using parsimony (*and other methods), version 4. Sinauer Associates, SunderlandGoogle Scholar
- 28.Vosloo W, Bastos ADS, Kirkbride E, Esterhuysen JJ, Van Rensburg DJ, Bengis RG, Keet DW, Thomson GR (1996) Persistent infection of African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) with SAT-type foot-and-mouth disease viruses: rate of fixation of mutations, antigenic change and interspecies transmission. J Gen Virol 77:1457–1467CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 29.Vosloo W, Bastos ADS, Sangare O, Hargreaves SK, Thomson GR (2002) Review of the status and control of foot and mouth disease in sub-Saharan Africa. Rev Sci Tec Off Int Epiz 21:437–447Google Scholar