Comparative study of ranavirus isolates from cod (Gadus morhua) and turbot (Psetta maxima) with reference to other ranaviruses
- 284 Downloads
Two iridovirus isolates recovered from cod (Gadus morhua) and turbot (Psetta maxima) in Denmark were examined in parallel with a panel of other ranaviruses including frog virus 3 (FV3), the reference strain for the genus Ranavirus. The isolates were assessed according to their reactivity in immunofluoresent antibody tests (IFAT) using both homologous and heterologous antisera and their amplification in PCR using primers targeting five genomic regions. The corresponding PCR fragments were sequenced, and the sequences obtained were used in phylogenetic analysis. In addition, the pathogenicity to rainbow trout under experimental challenge conditions was investigated. The viruses were serologically and genetically closely related to highly pathogenic ranaviruses such as European catfish iridovirus (ECV), European sheatfish iridovirus (ESV) and epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus (EHNV). The challenge trials indicate that rainbow trout fry cultured at 15°C are not target species for the virus isolates in the present panel. We suggest that the two isolates belong in the genus Ranavirus and propose the name Ranavirus maxima (Rmax) for the turbot isolate.
KeywordsRainbow Trout Major Capsid Protein Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus Epithelioma Papulosum Cyprini Epithelioma Papulosum Cyprini Cell
The present work was partly funded by the 6th framework program of European Union contract number SSPE-CT-2005-006459, project RANA. Drs. Ahne, Bovo, Hyatt, de Kinkelin, Larsen, Nakajima, Owens and Whittington are acknowledged for providing iridovirus strains and antibodies. Thanks are due to all our technicians, but especially Nicole Nicolajsen.
Conflict of interest statement
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- 1.Chinchar VG, Essbauer S, He JG, Hyatt AD, Miyazaki T, Seligy V, Williams T (2005) Family Iridoviridae. In: Fauguet CM, Mayo MA, Maniloff J, desselberger U, Ball LA (eds) Virus Taxonomy. Eighth report of the International Committee on the taxonomy of Viruses. Elsevier Academic Press, London, pp 145–162Google Scholar
- 2.Goorha R (1982) Frog virus 3 DNA replication occurs in two stages. J Virol Aug 43(2):519–528Google Scholar
- 18.Bovo G, Comuzi M, De Mas S, Ceschia G, Giorgetti G, Giacometti P, Cappellozza E (1993) Isolamento di un agente virale irido-like da pesce gatto (Ictalurus melas) dallevamento. Bollettino Societa Italiana di Patologia Ittica 11:3–10Google Scholar
- 28.Hoser R (1996) The frog decline in Australia. The reptilian magazine 4(3):19–25Google Scholar
- 30.Jensen NJ, Bloch B, Larsen JL (1979) A preliminary virological report. Nordisk Veterinaer 31:436–442Google Scholar
- 40.Reed LJ, Muench H (1938) A simple method of estimation of 50% endpoints. Am J Hyg 27:493–497Google Scholar
- 42.Jørgensen PEV, Olesen NJ, Ahne W, Lorenzen N (1989) SVCV and PFR viruses: serological examination of 22 isolates indicates close relationship between the two fish rhabdoviruses. In: Ahne W, Kurstak E (eds) Viruses of lower vertebrates. Springer, Berlin, pp 349–366Google Scholar
- 43.Jørgensen PEV, Grauballe PC (1971) Problems in the serological typing of IPN virus. Acta Vet Scand 12:145–147Google Scholar
- 44.Koski P, Hill BJ, Way K, Neuvonen E, Rintamäki P (1992) A rhabdovirus isolated from brown trout (Salmo trutta m. lacustris [L]) with lesions in parenchymatous organs. Bull Eur Ass Fish Pathol 12(5):177–180Google Scholar
- 47.Nicholas KB, Nicholas HB Jr, Deerfield DW II (1997) GeneDoc: analysis and visualization of genetic variation, EMBNEW.NEWS 4:14Google Scholar
- 50.Anonymous (2001) Commission Decision of 22 February 2001. Laying down the sampling plans and diagnostic methods for the detection and confirmation of certain fish diseases and repealing Decision 92/532/EEC. 2001/183/EC. Off J Euro Commun L 067, 0065-0076.Google Scholar
- 66.Huelsenbeck JP, Bull JJ, Cunningham CW (1996) Combining data in phylogenetic analysis. TREE 11:152–158Google Scholar
- 67.Whittington RJ, Reddacliff LA, Marsh I, Kearns C, Zupanovic Z, Callinan RC (1999) Further observations on the epidemiology and spread of epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus (EHNV) in farmed rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in southeastern Australia and a recommended sampling strategy for surveillance. Dis Aquat Organ 35:125–130CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 72.Ariel E, Bang Jensen B (2009) Challenge studies of European stock of redfin perch, Perca fluviatilis L. and rainbow trout, Oncorhyncus mykiss (Wallbaum) with epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus (EHNV). J Fish Dis 32:1017–1025. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2761.2009.01088.x
- 73.Bang Jensen B, Ohlemeyer S, Holopainen R, Schuetze H, Tapiovaara H, Bergmann SM and Ariel E. Susceptibility of European farmed freshwater fish to a panel of ranaviruses. (Accepted Journal of Fish Diseases)Google Scholar