Archives of Virology

, Volume 155, Issue 6, pp 965–969 | Cite as

Sentinel birds in wild-bird resting sites as potential indicators for West Nile virus infections in Germany

  • Ute Ziegler
  • Diana Seidowski
  • Anja Globig
  • Sasan R. Fereidouni
  • Rainer G. Ulrich
  • Martin H. Groschup
Brief Report

Abstract

West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-transmitted flavivirus with wild birds as its natural hosts. Ravens, falcons and jays are highly susceptible for WNV and develop deadly encephalitis, while other bird species undergo only subclinical infections. Migratory birds are efficient vectors for geographic spreading of WNV. Until now, WNV infections have not been diagnosed in Germany, but infections in humans and horses have occurred recently in Austria, Hungary and Italy. To investigate potential WNV introduction by infected wild birds, we have monitored the serological status of ducks in three national sentinel stations. No WNV-positive reactions were found, whereas sera from coots from northern Iran were positive.

Keywords

West Nile virus (WNV) Wild bird Surveillance Sentinel Serological tests RT-PCR 

References

  1. 1.
    Zeller HG, Schuffenecker I (2004) West Nile virus: an overview of its spread in Europe and the Mediterranean basin in contrast to its spread in the Americas. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 23:147–156CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Petersen LR, Roehrig JT (2001) West Nile virus: a reemerging global pathogen. Emerg Infect Dis 7:611–614CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hubálek Z, Halouzka J (1999) West Nile fever-a reemerging mosquito borne viral disease in Europe. Emerg Infect Dis 5:643–650CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Jourdain E, Zeller HG, Sabatier P, Murri S, Kayser Y, Greenland T, Lafaye M, Gauthier-Clerc M (2008) Prevalence of West Nile virus neutralizing antibodies in wild birds from the Camargue area, southern France. J Wildl Dis 44:766–771PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kelleher CJ, Halvorson DA, Newman JA, Senne DA (1984) Isolation of Avian Paramyxoviruses from Sentinel Ducks and Turkeys in Minnesota. Avian Dis 29:400–407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Buckley A, Dawson A, Gould EA (2006) Detection of seroconversion to West Nile virus, Usutu virus and Sindbis virus in UK sentinel chickens. Virol J 3:71Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Globig A, Baumer A, Revilla-Fernandez S, Beer M, Wodak E, Fink M, Greber N, Harder TC, Wilking H, Brunhart I, Matthes D, Kraatz U, Strunk P, Fiedler W, Fereidouni SR, Staubach C, Conraths FJ, Griot C, Mettenleiter TC, Stärk KDC (2009) Ducks as sentinels for avian influenza in wild birds. Emerg Infect Dis 15(10):1633–1636PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Komar N (2001) West Nile virus surveillance using sentinel birds. Ann NY Acad Sci 951:58–73PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sinnecker H, Sinnecker R, Zilske E, Köhler D (1982) Detection of influenza A viruses and influenza epidemics in wild pelagic birds by sentinels and population studies. Zentralbl Bakteriol Abt Orig A 253:297–304Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Weitzel T, Collado A, Jöst A, Pietsch K, Storch V, Becker N (2009) Genetic differentiation of populations within the Culex pipiens complex and phylogeny of related species. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 25:6–17CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Linke S (2007) Die Prävalenz und Inzidenz von West-Nil-Virus in Deutschland. Berlin, Free University, Thesis. http://www.diss.fu-berlin.de/diss/servlets/MCRFileNodeServlet/FUDISS_derivate_000000002910/0_linke.pdf;jsessionid=5674B772B902A4DDCAA674E282C90DC9?hosts=
  12. 12.
    Mayr A, Bachmann PA, Bibrack B, Wittmann G (1977) Neutralisationstest. In: Mayr A, Bachmann PA, Bibrack B, Wittmann: Virologische Arbeitsmethoden, Band II (Serologie). Gustav Fischer Verlag, Jena, pp 457–534Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Eiden M, Rodriguez AV, Hoffmann B, Ziegler U, Groschup MH (2010). Two new quantitative real-time PCR assays with unique target sites for the specific and sensitive detection of lineages 1 and 2 West Nile virus strains. J Vet Diagn Invest (in press)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hlinak A, Mühle RU, Werner O, Globig A, Starick E, Schirrmeier H, Hoffmann B, Engelhardt A, Hübner D, Conraths FJ, Wallschläger D, Kruckenberg H, Müller T (2006) A virological survey in migrating waders and other waterfowl in one of the most important resting sites of Germany. J Vet Med B. 53:105–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Schirrmeier, H, Hoffmann B, Globig A, Werner O (2004) West Nile Virus-Surveillance bei Wildvögeln: Erste Ergebnisse und Risikoabschätzung. DVG-Referatesammlung 67. Fachgespräch Geflügelkrankheiten, pp. 35–43Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Linke S, Niedrig M, Kaiser A, Ellerbrok H, Müller K, Müller T, Conraths FJ, Mühle RU, Schmidt D, Köppen U, Bairlein F, Berthold P, Pauli G (2007) Serologic evidence of West Nile virus infections in wild birds captured in Germany. Am J Trop Med Hyg 77:358–364PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lanciotti RS, Ebel GD, Deubel V, Kerst AJ et al (2002) Complete genome sequences and phylogenetic analysis of West Nile virus strains isolated from the United States, Europe, and the Middle East. Virology 298:96–105CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Weissenböck H, Hubálek Z, Bakonyi T, Nowotny N (2010) Zoonotic mosquito-borne flaviviruses: worldwide presence of agents with proven pathogenicity and potential candidates of future emerging diseases. Vet Microbiol 140:271–280CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Weitzel T, Braun K, Pietsch K, Jost A, Beck M and Becker N (2006) Occurrence and frequency of Culex pipiens and Culex torrentium in Germany. In: Abstract 15th European SOVE Meeting, Serres, Greece, April 10–14Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ute Ziegler
    • 1
  • Diana Seidowski
    • 1
  • Anja Globig
    • 2
  • Sasan R. Fereidouni
    • 1
  • Rainer G. Ulrich
    • 1
  • Martin H. Groschup
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for Novel and Emerging Infectious DiseasesFriedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Animal HealthGreifswald-Insel RiemsGermany
  2. 2.International Animal Health GroupFriedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Animal HealthGreifswald-Insel RiemsGermany

Personalised recommendations