Archives of Virology

, Volume 155, Issue 4, pp 613–620 | Cite as

A new isolate of beak and feather disease virus from endemic wild red-fronted parakeets (Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae) in New Zealand

  • Luis Ortiz-Catedral
  • Brigitta Kurenbach
  • Melanie Massaro
  • Kate McInnes
  • Dianne H. Brunton
  • Mark E. Hauber
  • Darren P. Martin
  • Arvind Varsani
Annotated Sequence Record


Psittacine beak and feather disease (PBFD) is a viral disease distributed worldwide with a potentially critical impact on many rare parrots. While efforts have been made to determine its prevalence in wild and captive psittacines, only limited work has been done to document complete genomes of its causative agent, beak and feather disease virus (BFDV). Here, we describe five full genomes of BFDV isolated from wild specimens of an endemic New Zealand parrot, the red-fronted parakeet (Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae). The isolates share >99% nucleotide similarity amongst themselves and ~91–92% similarity to BFDV isolates from southern Africa, Europe and Australia. A maximum-likelihood (ML) phylogenetic tree including 42 other full-genome sequences indicated that the five isolates from red-fronted parakeets represent an undescribed genotype of BFDV. These isolates are evolutionarily most closely related to the Cacatuini isolates from Thailand and the Lorinae isolates from Australia in the rep gene ML tree; however, in the cp ML tree, the evolutionary relationship is closer to viruses found in the Psittacini.


ssDNA Virus Psittacus Erithacus Rainbow Lorikeet Feather Disease Virus Parrot Population 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This research was completed with the logistical and financial support of the University of Canterbury (Science Faculty Early Career Grant), New Zealand Department of Conservation, Massey University (Institute of Natural Sciences), the University of Auckland (School of Biological Sciences), Motuihe Island Trust, Tawharanui Open Sanctuary Supporters Inc., Auckland Regional Council, and National Council of Science from Mexico (CONACYT). This research was conducted under full approval of the New Zealand Department of Conservation (permits AK-15300-RES, AK-20666-FAU and AK-22857-FAU) and Massey University Animal Ethics Committee (protocols MUAEC 07/138 and 08/24). MM is supported by the New Zealand Foundation for Research, Science and Technology (UOCX0601). We thank the numerous volunteers who assisted with capture and processing of red-fronted of parakeets on Little Barrier Island. Special thanks go to Shane McInnes and Liz Whitwell (Department of Conservation) who greatly facilitated our work on Little Barrier Island.

Supplementary material

705_2010_607_MOESM1_ESM.doc (116 kb)
Supplementary Fig. 1 (DOC 116 kb)
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Supplementary Fig. 2 (DOC 37 kb)
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Supplementary Fig. 3 (DOC 32 kb)
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Supplementary Fig. 4 (PPT 77 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Luis Ortiz-Catedral
    • 1
  • Brigitta Kurenbach
    • 2
    • 3
  • Melanie Massaro
    • 2
  • Kate McInnes
    • 4
  • Dianne H. Brunton
    • 1
  • Mark E. Hauber
    • 5
    • 6
  • Darren P. Martin
    • 7
  • Arvind Varsani
    • 2
    • 8
  1. 1.Ecology and Conservation Lab, Institute of Natural SciencesMassey UniversityAucklandNew Zealand
  2. 2.School of Biological SciencesUniversity of CanterburyChristchurchNew Zealand
  3. 3.Genøk-Centre for BiosafetyThe Science ParkTromsøNorway
  4. 4.Department of ConservationWellingtonNew Zealand
  5. 5.Department of PsychologyHunter College of City University of New York (CUNY)New YorkUSA
  6. 6.School of Biological SciencesUniversity of AucklandAucklandNew Zealand
  7. 7.Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular MedicineUniversity of Cape TownCape TownSouth Africa
  8. 8.Electron Microscope UnitUniversity of Cape TownCape TownSouth Africa

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