Archives of Virology

, Volume 155, Issue 3, pp 435–439 | Cite as

A unique isolate of beak and feather disease virus isolated from budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) in South Africa

  • Arvind Varsani
  • Gillian K. de Villiers
  • Guy L. Regnard
  • Robert R. Bragg
  • Kulsum Kondiah
  • Inga I. Hitzeroth
  • Edward P. Rybicki
Annotated Sequence Record


Beak and feather disease virus (BFDV), the causative agent of psittacine beak and feather disease (PBFD) infects psittaciformes worldwide. We provide an annotated sequence record of three full-length unique genomes of BFDV isolates from budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) from a breeding farm in South Africa. The isolates share >99% nucleotide sequence identity with each other and ~96% nucleotide sequence identity to two recent isolates (Melopsittacus undulatus) from Thailand but only between 91.6 and 86.6% identity with all other full-length BFDV sequences. Maximum-likelihood analysis and recombination analysis suggest that the South African budgerigar BFDV isolates are unique to budgerigars, are non-recombinant in origin, and represent a new genotype of BFDV.


Coat Protein Nucleotide Sequence Identity Melopsittacus Undulatus South African Isolate Recombination Detection Method 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This study was supported by funding provided by the South African National Research Foundation and by generous donation of blood and samples from infected birds.

Supplementary material

705_2010_589_MOESM1_ESM.doc (46 kb)
Genome sequence annotations of the budgerigar BFDV isolates from South Africa.Sequences either known or believed to have some role in circovirus replication andtranscription are marked together with a corresponding label on the nucleotide sequencealignments. To highlight differences between the sequences, wherever nucleotides in aparticular alignment column are identical to that of GQ165757 they are replaced with a“.” character. Gaps introduced to optimise the alignment are indicated with “-” character. (DOC 46 kb)
705_2010_589_MOESM2_ESM.doc (29 kb)
Annotated predicted replication associated (Rep, shown in A) and coat (CP, shown in B)protein sequences of budgerigar BFDV isolates from South Africa. Potential rollingcirclereplication motifs and interaction domains are highlighted in Rep. The potentialnuclear localization signal is highlighted on the CP sequence. Wherever amino acids in aparticular alignment column are identical to that of GQ165757 they are replaced with a“.” character. Gaps introduced to optimise the alignment are indicated with “-” character.The character “*” represents a stop codon.  (DOC 29 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Arvind Varsani
    • 1
    • 2
  • Gillian K. de Villiers
    • 3
  • Guy L. Regnard
    • 3
  • Robert R. Bragg
    • 4
  • Kulsum Kondiah
    • 4
  • Inga I. Hitzeroth
    • 3
  • Edward P. Rybicki
    • 3
    • 5
    • 6
  1. 1.Electron Microscope UnitUniversity of Cape TownRondeboschSouth Africa
  2. 2.School of Biological SciencesUniversity of CanterburyChristchurchNew Zealand
  3. 3.Department of Molecular and Cell BiologyUniversity of Cape TownRondeboschSouth Africa
  4. 4.Department of Microbial, Biochemical and Food BiotechnologyUniversity of the Free StateBloemfonteinSouth Africa
  5. 5.Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular MedicineUniversity of Cape TownObservatorySouth Africa
  6. 6.Department of Molecular and Cell BiologyUniversity of Cape TownRondeboschSouth Africa

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