Archives of Virology

, 154:1807 | Cite as

Genotyping of mumps virus circulating in Turkey in the 2006–2007 winter season

  • Alper AkcaliEmail author
  • Neziha Yilmaz
  • Yavuz Uyar
  • Mustafa Ertek
  • Turan Buzgan
Original Article


In the winter of 2006–2007, several parotitis cases were reported in different provinces of Turkey. Serological and virological studies were undertaken to investigate these cases with the aim of determining the genotype of the mumps virus (MuV) circulating in Turkey. Samples from 23 cases—Ankara (n:5), Kırklareli (n:4), Mugla (n:10), Isparta (n:3), Trabzon (n:1)—with a diagnosis of clinical parotitis were investigated. Serum samples were tested against mumps IgM and IgG, nested PCR amplification of a 639-bp fragment encompassing the entire SH gene was performed using buccal swabs, and PCR products were sequenced. Of 18 serum samples, 16 (88.9%) were positive for mumps IgM. Seven (30.4%) of 23 buccal swab samples were positive by PCR. In five PCR-positive cases, the sample was also positive for mumps IgM, and serum samples were not available from two of the PCR-positive cases. There was 98% identity between the different sequences, and all were identified as genotype H. The sequences were most similar to sequences identified in Spain, Japan, Switzerland and the UK, and less closely related to the H strains identified in Belarus, Korea and Russia. This is the first report of the mumps virus genotypes circulating in Turkey. Turkey is, geographically, a bridge between Europe and Asia, and therefore, a better understanding of the molecular epidemiology of MuV in Turkey may led to improved tracking of the circulation of strains between the two continents. Moreover, there is a need to further investigate the existence of other genotypes in Turkey.


Mumps Buccal Swab Mumps Virus Parotitis Mumps Vaccine 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



We would like to thank Drs. Kevin Brown and Li Jin, Virus Reference Department, Centre for Infection, HPA, London, for their help in sequencing and genotyping the isolates, Dr. Etem Ozkaya for evaluation of the sequence data, the laboratory personnel of RSNPHA of Turkey for excellent technical assistance, and the staff of the Primary Health Care directorate of the Turkish Ministry of Health, Provincial Health Directorates, for organising the sample collection and collaboration.


  1. 1.
    Amexis G, Rubin S, Chatterjee N, Carbone K, Chumakov K (2003) Identification of a new genotype H wild-type mumps virus strain and its molecular relatedness to other virulent and attenuated strains. J Med Virol 70:284–286CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Atrasheuskaya AV, Blatun EM, Kulak MV, Atrasheuskaya A, Karpov IA, Rubin S, Ignatyev GM (2007) Investigation of mumps vaccine failures in Minsk, Belarus, 2001–2003. Vaccine 25:4651–4658CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Atrasheuskaya AV, Kulak MV, Rubin S, Ignatyev GM (2007) Mumps vaccine failure investigation in Novosibirsk, Russia, 2002–2004. Clin Microbiol Infect 13:670–676CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bum SG, Litman N (1995) Mumps virus. In: Mandell GL, Douglas RG, Bennett JE (eds) Principles and practice of infectious disease, 4th edn. Churchill Livingstone, New York, pp 1260–1265Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gürgöze MK, Yilmaz E, Gödekmerdan A, Akça Z, Doğan Y, Akarsu S, Aygun AD (2006) Seroprevalence of mumps, varicella and rubella antibodies in children 1–16 years of age in eastern Turkey. Turk J Pediatr 48:185–188PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Jin L, Beard S, Brown DWG (1999) Genetic heterogeneity of mumps virus in the United Kingdom: identification of two new genotypes. J Infect Dis 180:829–833CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Jin L, Beard S, Hale A, Knowles W, Brown DWG (2000) The genomic sequence of a contemporary wild-type mumps virus strain. Virus Res 70:75–83CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Jin L, Rima B, Brown D, Orvell C, Tecle T, Afzal M, Uchida K, Nakayama T, Song JW, Kang C, Rota PA, Xu W, Featherstone D (2005) Proposal for genetic characterisation of wild-type mumps strains: preliminary standardisation of the nomenclature. Arch Virol 150:1903–1909CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kaaijk P, van der Zeijst BA, Boog MC, Hoitink CW (2008) Increased mumps incidence in the Netherlands: review on the possible role of vaccine strain and genotype. Euro Surveill 13:pii=18914Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kimura M (1990) A simple method for estimating evolutionary rates of base substitutions through comparative studies of nucleotide sequence. J Mol Evol 16:111–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kojouharova M, Kurchatova A, Marinova L, Georgieva T (2007) Mumps outbreak in Bulgaria, 2007: a preliminary report. Euro Surveill 12:pii=3162Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mühlemann K (2004) The molecular epidemiology of mumps virus. Infect Genet Evol 4:215–219CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Orvell C, Kalantari M, Johansson B (1997) Characterisation of five conserved genotypes of the mumps virus small hydrophobic (SH) protein gene. J Gen Virol 78:91–95PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Paterson RG, Lamb RA (1990) RNA editing by G-nucleotide insertion in mumps virus P-gene mRNA transcripts. J Virol 64:4137–4145PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Rima BK, Alexander DJ, Billeter MA, Collins PL, Kingsburry DW, Lipkind MA et al (1995) The Paramyxoviridae. In: Murphy FA, Fauquet CM, Bishop DHL, Ghabrial SA, Jarvis AW, Martelli GP et al (eds) Virus taxonomy. Sixth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Springer, Vienna and New York, pp 268–274Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Saitou N, Nei M (1987) The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Mol Biol Evol 4:406–425PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Szomor K, Molnár Z, Huszti G, Ozsvárné Csepregi É (2007) Local mumps outbreak in Hungary, 2007. Euro Surveill 12:pii=3167Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Takahashi M, Nakayama T, Kashiwagi Y, Takami T, Sonoda S, Yamanaka T, Ochiai H, Ihara T, Tajima T (2000) Single genotype of measles virus is dominant whereas several genotypes of mumps virus are co-circulating. J Med Virol 62:278–285CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Takeuchi K, Tanabayashi K, Hishiyama M, Yamada A (1996) The mumps virus SH protein is a membrane protein and not essential for virus growth. Virology 225:156–162CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Tamura K, Dudley J, Nei M, Kumar S (2007) MEGA 4: Molecular evolutionary genetics analysis (MEGA) software version 4.0. Mol Biol Evol 24:1596–1599CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Tecle T, Johansson B, Jejcic A, Forsgren M, Orvell C (1998) Characterisation of three co-circulating genotypes of the small hydrophobic protein gene of mumps virus. J Gen Virol 79:2929–2937PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Uchida K, Shinohara M, Shimada S, Segawa Y, Hoshino Y (2001) Characterization of mumps virus isolated in Saitama prefecture, Japan, by sequence analysis of the SH gene. Microbiol Immunol 45:851–855PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Uchida K, Shinohara M, Shimada S, Segawa Y, Kimura K, Hoshino Y (2003) Characterization of the F gene of contemporary mumps virus strains isolated in Japan. Microbiol Immunol 47:167–172PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Utz S, Richard JL, Capaul S, Matter HC, Hrisoho MG, Mühlemann K (2004) Phylogenetic analysis of clinical mumps virus isolates from vaccinated and non-vaccinated patients with mumps during an outbreak, Switzerland 1998–2000. J Med Virol 73:91–96CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Yalçin SS, Kanra G, Pehlivan T (2006) Outbreak of measles in medical students and determination of immune status to measles-mumps-rubella viruses. Int J Adolesc Med Health 18:615–622PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alper Akcali
    • 1
    • 4
    Email author
  • Neziha Yilmaz
    • 1
  • Yavuz Uyar
    • 1
  • Mustafa Ertek
    • 2
  • Turan Buzgan
    • 3
  1. 1.Virology Reference and Research LaboratoryRefik Saydam National Public Health Agency (RSNPHA)AnkaraTurkey
  2. 2.PresidencyRefik Saydam National Public Health Agency (RSNPHA)AnkaraTurkey
  3. 3.Ministry of Health of TurkeyAnkaraTurkey
  4. 4.Department of Microbiology and Clinical Microbiology, School of MedicineCanakkale Onsekiz Mart UniversityCanakkaleTurkey

Personalised recommendations