Archives of Virology

, Volume 154, Issue 7, pp 1047–1059 | Cite as

A nationwide molecular epidemiological study on hepatitis B virus in Indonesia: identification of two novel subgenotypes, B8 and C7

  • Mulyanto
  • Sulaiman Ngongu Depamede
  • Kiely Surayah
  • Fumio Tsuda
  • Koji Ichiyama
  • Masaharu Takahashi
  • Hiroaki Okamoto
Original Article


Upon phylogenetic analysis of a partial S gene sequence [396 nucleotides (nt)], 928 hepatitis B virus (HBV) strains obtained from 899 viremic subjects in 28 major cities on 15 islands of Indonesia in 1989–2007 segregated into four HBV genotypes. Genotype B was predominant (66%), followed by genotype C (26%), genotype D (7%), and genotype A (0.8%). Comparative and phylogenetic analyses of the 396-nt S gene sequence of 928 HBV isolates and whole genomic sequences of 25 selected HBV isolates revealed a total of 14 subgenotypes within genotypes A–D: two (A1 and A2) in genotype A (HBV/A), five (B2, B3, B5, B7, and a novel subgenotype, tentatively designated B8) in HBV/B, five (C1, C2, C5, C6, and another novel subgenotype, C7) in HBV/C, and two (D1 and D3) in HBV/D. The distribution of HBV genotypes/subgenotypes, including B8 and C7, seems to be associated with ethnological origins in Indonesia.


Hepatitis Delta Virus Entire Genomic Sequence Hepatitis Delta Virus Infection HBsAg Subtype Hepatitis Delta Virus Genome 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This study was supported in part by a grant from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan. The authors are grateful to Dr. Patiiha and Dr. Achwan WA as well as all of the people who helped us to collect blood samples for their invaluable contributions.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mulyanto
    • 1
    • 2
  • Sulaiman Ngongu Depamede
    • 1
  • Kiely Surayah
    • 2
  • Fumio Tsuda
    • 3
    • 4
  • Koji Ichiyama
    • 5
  • Masaharu Takahashi
    • 5
  • Hiroaki Okamoto
    • 5
  1. 1.Immunobiology Laboratory, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of MataramMataramIndonesia
  2. 2.West Nusa Tenggara Hepatitis LaboratoryMataramIndonesia
  3. 3.Department of Medical SciencesToshiba General HospitalTokyoJapan
  4. 4.Aikawa Internal Medicine HospitalIbarakiJapan
  5. 5.Division of Virology, Department of Infection and ImmunityJichi Medical University School of MedicineShimotsukeJapan

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