Archives of Virology

, 154:677 | Cite as

A comparison of the pathogenicity of avian and swine H5N1 influenza viruses in Indonesia

  • Ryo Takano
  • Chairul A. Nidom
  • Maki Kiso
  • Yukiko Muramoto
  • Shinya Yamada
  • Kyoko Shinya
  • Yuko Sakai-Tagawa
  • Yoshihiro Kawaoka
Brief Report


Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses are circulating in many countries. We recently discovered that these viruses have been transmitted to pigs on multiple occasions in Indonesia. To investigate whether avian H5N1 influenza viruses adapted to mammals through their introduction into pigs, we examined the growth of avian and swine isolates in cell culture and compared their pathogenicity in mice. We found that swine isolates were less virulent to mice than avian isolates, suggesting that the viruses became attenuated during their replication in pigs. Continuous surveillance of H5N1 viruses among pigs is clearly warranted.


Influenza Virus Avian Influenza H5N1 Virus Avian Influenza Virus H5N1 Influenza Virus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.





Madin–Darby canine kidney


50% Egg infective dose


50% Tissue culture infective dose


50% Mouse lethal dose














Polymerase basic protein 2



We thank Susan Watson for editing the manuscript. This work was supported by a grant-in-aid for Specially Promoted Research and by a contract research fund for the Program of Funding Research Centers for Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases from the Ministries of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology and by grants-in-aid of Health, Labor, and Welfare of Japan, by ERATO (Japan Science and Technology Agency), and by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Public Health Service research grants.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ryo Takano
    • 1
  • Chairul A. Nidom
    • 2
    • 3
  • Maki Kiso
    • 1
  • Yukiko Muramoto
    • 1
  • Shinya Yamada
    • 1
  • Kyoko Shinya
    • 4
  • Yuko Sakai-Tagawa
    • 1
  • Yoshihiro Kawaoka
    • 1
    • 4
    • 5
    • 6
  1. 1.Division of Virology, Department of Microbiology and ImmunologyUniversity of TokyoMinato-kuJapan
  2. 2.Faculty of Veterinary MedicineAirlangga UniversitySurabayaIndonesia
  3. 3.Collaborating Research Center Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases, Tropical Disease CentreAirlangga UniversitySurabayaIndonesia
  4. 4.International Centre for Medical Research and Treatment, Graduate School of MedicineKobe UniversityChuo-kuJapan
  5. 5.International Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Institute of Medical ScienceUniversity of TokyoMinato-kuJapan
  6. 6.Department of Pathological Sciences, School of Veterinary MedicineUniversity of Wisconsin-MadisonMadisonUSA

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