Archives of Virology

, Volume 154, Issue 3, pp 531–534

Homologous recombination within the capsid gene of porcine circovirus type 2 subgroup viruses via natural co-infection

Brief Report


Several studies had reported homologous recombination between two porcine circovirus (PCV) type 2 subgroup viruses, PCV2a and PCV2b. The recombination events described thus far mapped either within the Rep gene sequences or the sequences flanking the Rep gene region. Previously, the presence of both PCV2a and PCV2b DNA sequences in tissues of the same infected swine from the 2005 United States PCV-associated disease outbreak was reported, which indicates that the animal was co-infected with both PCV2 subgroup viruses. Here, two naturally occurring chimeric genomes were identified that exhibited homologous recombination within the capsid gene sequences, and infectious viruses were recovered from both chimeric genomes after transfection into tissue culture cells.


  1. 1.
    Allan GM, Ellis JA (2000) Porcine circoviruses: a review. J Vet Diagn Invest 12:3–14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Allan GM, McNeilly F, McMenamy M, McNair I, Krakowka SG, Timmusk S, Walls D, Donnelly M, Minahin D, Ellis J, Wallgren P, Fossum C (2007) Temporal distribution of porcine circovirus 2 genogroups recovered from postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome affected and nonaffected farms in Ireland and Northern Ireland. J Vet Diagn Invest 9:668–673Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Carman S, McEwen B, DeLay J, van Dreumel T, Lusis P, Cai H, Fairles J (2006) Porcine circovirus-2 associated disease in swine in Ontario (2004 to 2005). Can Vet J 47:761–762PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chae C (2004) A review of porcine circovirus 2-associated syndromes and diseases. Vet J 169:326–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cheung AK (2003) The essential and non-essential transcription units for viral protein synthesis and DNA replication of porcine circovirus type 2. Virology 313:452–459PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cheung AK, Lager KM, Kohutyuk OI, Vincent AL, Henry SC, Baker RB, Rowland RR, Dunham AG (2007) Detection of two porcine circovirus type 2 genotypic groups in United States swine herds. Arch Virol 152:1035–1044PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dupont K, Nielsen EO, Bækbo P, Larsen LE (2008) Genomic analysis of PCV2 isolates from Danish archives and a current PMWS case-control study supports a shift in genotypes with time. Vet Microbiol 128:56–64PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gagnon CA, Tremblay D, Tijssen P, Venne MH, Houde A, Elahi SM (2007) The emergence of porcine circovirus 2b genotype (PCV-2b) in swine in Canada. Can Vet J 48:811–819PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hesse R, Kerrigan M, Rowland RR (2008) Evidence for recombination between PCV2a and PCV2b in the field. Virus Res 132:201–207PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lager KM, Gauger PC, Vincent AL, Opriessnig T, Kehrli ME Jr, Cheung AK (2007) Mortality in pigs given porcine circovirus type 2 subgroup 1 and 2 viruses derived from DNA clones. Vet Rec 161:428–429PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ma CM, Hon CC, Lam TY, Li VY, Wong CK, de Oliveira T, Leung FC (2007) Evidence for recombination in natural populations of porcine circovirus type 2 in Hong Kong and mainland China. J Gen Virol 88:1733–1737PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    McNulty M, Dale J, Lukert P, Mankertz A, Randles J, Todd D (2000) Circoviridae. In: van Regenmortel MHV, Fauquet CM, Bishop DHL, Carstens EB, Estes MK, Lemon SM, Maniloff J, Mayo MA, McGeoch DJ, Pringle CR, Wickner RB (eds) Seventh Report of the International Committee on taxonomy of viruses. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 299–303Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Olvera A, Cortey M, Segales J (2007) Molecular evolution of porcine circovirus type 2 genomes: phylogeny and clonality. Virology 357:175–185PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pringle CR (1999) Virus taxonomy at the XIth international congress of virology, Sydney. Aust Arch Virol 144:2065–2070CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Timmusk S, Wallgren P, Brunborg IM, Wikström FH, Allan G, Meehan B, McMenamy M, McNeilly F, Fuxler L, Belák K, Põdersoo D, Saar T, Berg M, Fossum C (2008) Phylogenetic analysis of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) pre- and post-epizootic postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). Virus Genes 36:509–520PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Virus and Prion Diseases of Livestock Research Unit, National Animal Disease CenterUSDA, Agricultural Research ServiceAmesUSA

Personalised recommendations